Friday, July 19, 2013


OMNI NEWSLETTER NUMBER 12 ON THE US EMPIRE, THE US NATIONAL SECURITY STATE, NATIONALISM, MILITARISM,  July 19, 2013,  Compiled by Dick Bennett Building a Culture of Peace and Justice.   

US Imperialism Newsletters
#1 July 3, 2007
#2 Sept. 20, 2007
#3 April 7, 2008
#4  Nov. 30, 2008
#5   September 13, 2011
#6 October 16, 2011
#7  January 16, 2012
#8 June 3, 2012
#9 Oct. 20, 2012
#10 April 5, 2013
#11 June 3, 2013

“A people who mean to be their own Governors must arm themselves with the power which knowledge gives.”  James Madison

Knowledge and Action Against US Wars
An underlying theme of this newsletter and of all of the newsletters pertaining to war is the necessity of the US peace movement in all its local organization to be informed, to try to see through lies and secrecy, to think, and to act both locally and globally.   “. . .the dominant interpretation of the past often enjoys its status not because of its superior historical accuracy but because of its proponents’ social power.”  Karl Jacoby, Shadows at Dawn: An Apache Massacre and the Violence of History (p. 276). 
Often the argument is made that peacemaking must begin with individual search for inner equanimity, steadiness, and strength, and nobody can deny that foundation for peace, but our leaders’ reckless lawlessness, making the world hostile and unstable and killing millions of people, destabilizes each and every one of us locally and individually, and must be stopped.   “Of all the enemies to public liberty, war is, perhaps, the most to be dreaded, because it comprises and develops the germ of every other.  War is the parent of armies; from these proceed debts and taxes. . . .”   James Madison, “Political Observations,”  April 20, 1795.   In order to act, we are not compelled to wait until we have fully matured, and anyway a lifetime is seldom enough time to enable that ideal condition.    –Dick

My blog:  It's the War Department
See: Afghan/US War, Costs of War, Consequences of War, US Imperialism, US Imperialism Continental Westward Expansion, US Imperial Pacific E. Asia Expansion, US Leaders Imperial Lawlessness, Iraq/US War, McCarthyism, Ongoing, US Military Industrial Complex, Militarism, Pentagon, Pentagon: Suicides, Pentagon: Whistleblowing, Torture, War Crimes, and more.

Instead of Defense Department: War Department
Instead of War on Terror: War to Control Resources
Instead of Taliban: Afghan/Pakistan Pashtun Resistance to Occupation

A wide-ranging  source of information is the Defense News Early Bird Brief:   :

Nos. 7 & 8 below.

Here is the link to all of OMNI’s newsletters   Laying the foundation for peace, justice, and ecology in knowledge.

Many  books have been written prophesying the end of US Empire with titles like: Suicide of a Superpower; The Empire Has No Clothes; Taming American Power; Nemesis: the Last Days of the American Republic; Colossus: The Rise and Fall of the American Empire; and Selling Out A Superpower.

"To initiate a war of aggression, therefore, is not only an international crime, it is the supreme international crime differing only from other war crimes in that it contains within itself the accumulated evil of the whole." -- Robert H. Jackson, Chief U.S. Prosecutor, Nuremberg Military Tribunal 

Verse for those who see no evil:
If we see right, we see our Woes,
Then what avails it to have Eyes?
From Ignorance our Comfort flows;
The only wretched are the wise.  Matthew Prior

Nos. 7 & 8 below.

Contents #9
PNAC Continues
Middle East Maneuvers
US Militarism Abroad
New Book: Taming American Power
TomDispatch, Vine:  Empire of Bases, Lily Pad Strategy
Central America, Nonviolence vs. the Empire
Intervention Law and Libya
Zibechi, Urban Poor
Empire and Medical Care
New Weapon for Large Cargo and Constant Surveillance
US Militarism at Home
The Poor and Military Recruiting
Scales:  Army Good, Too Many Wars Bad
Moyers, Look Back to 1980s

Contents #10 
Herman:  the Troops, the Criminals, Lawlessness, Propaganda System, Bush and Obama
Kutler:  McGovern’ Critique of US Foreign Policy
2 on Romney and Obama
US Intervention in Mali 2012
Militarizing Arctic North: Sweden and Finland
San Juan , PNAC Militarist Takeover Remembered
Vlchek, US and USSR Compared
Empire and Social Sciences
Early Years, 2 Books
   McCoy and Scarano, Colonial
    LaFebre, Late 19th Century
Alternative History:  Zinn and Stone/Kuznick
Dick: The Story of the US at Chrystal Bridges

Contents #11
Petition for Peace
Dick, US Wars Not for Freedom
Reich, Sexual Assault in the Air Force
General Smedley Butler
Blum, America’s Deadliest Export
Boggs, The Crimes of Empire
Scahill, Dirty Wars
Hedges on Manning
Hedges, Murdering Leaders
Sirota, Blowback, Backlash, Retaliation
Assange, Electronic Control

Contents #12
Recent Newsletters
Kuzmarov:  Control and Police Training
Dirty Wars Film
Quigley’s The Ruses for War Republished Updated
Wikipedia, US Imperialism
US Navy, US Imperialism: Google Search
Dick, US Navy in US Interests Anywhere, Any Time
Kirschner, Historical Open: 128 US Military Invasions and Interventions

Recent Newsletters Related to US Empire and Militarism
3 Assassination
3 Guantanamo
3 World Press Freedom Day
5 Corporations
11 Drone/Assassination
14 Secrecy
15 Conscientious Objection
18 Armed Forces Day
22 Whistleblowers
27 Memorial Day
28 War on Terrorism
29 Drone/Assassination
1 Torture Awareness MONTH
2 Nuclear Weapons
3 Pentagon
3 Empire
8 Violence
8 War Crimes
9 National Security State
9 Surveillance
12 Manning/Surveillance
14 Flag DAY
16 Father’s DAY for Peace
17 Guantanamo
20 Assassinations
24 Whistleblowers
26 Torture Awareness DAY
4.Independence DAY
5 Fascism
5  Westward Imperialism
7  Capitalism
9  Snowden
11 Population Growth

Click to open expanded view

Modernizing Repression: Police Training and Nation Building in the American Century (Culture, Politics, and the Cold War) [Paperback]

Jeremy Kuzmarov 

Book Description

 June 30, 2012  Culture, Politics, and the Cold War
As American troops became bogged down first in Iraq and then Afghanistan, a key component of U.S. strategy was to build up local police and security forces in an attempt to establish law and order. This approach, Jeremy Kuzmarov shows, is consistent with practices honed over more than a century in developing nations within the expanding orbit of the American empire. From the conquest of the Philippines and Haiti at the turn of the twentieth century through Cold War interventions and the War on Terror, police training has been valued as a cost-effective means of suppressing radical and nationalist movements, precluding the need for direct U.S. military intervention and thereby avoiding the public opposition it often arouses.

Unlike the spectacular but ephemeral pyrotechnics of the battlefield, police training programs have had lasting consequences for countries under the American imperial umbrella, fostering new elites, creating powerful tools of social control, and stifling political reform. These programs have also backfired, breeding widespread resistance, violence, and instability telltale signs of blowback that has done more to undermine than advance U.S. strategic interests abroad.

Dirty Wars is a Must See!
To:James R. Bennett Thursday, June 13, 2013 8:01 AM

Dirty Wars: Learn More
·                          Watch the Trailer
·                          See the Film
·                          Host a Screening
·                          Order the Book
·                          Praise and Reviews
·                          Jeremy Scahill onDemocracy Now!
·                          More about Bradley Manning
·                          More on Edward Snowden
Support Our Work
·                          Give a single, tax-deductable donation or become a sustaining donor
·                          Give us your feedback
Dear Dick,
Last week marked the start of the historic trial of whistleblower Bradley Manning, who exposed the extent of Iraqi civilian casualties as well as problematic US diplomatic relationships worldwide.  Within days, the reality of corporate and government surveillance of US citizens was exposed by former CIA employee and NSA contractor Edward Snowden.  There could not have been a better day than Friday to release the film Dirty Wars, and you need to see it.
Why Dirty Wars is so Important
September 11, 2001 changed more than just air travel. Within days of those powerful events, congress essentially wrote the President a blank check by passing the Authorization for Use of Military Force. The language contained within this resolution set the stage for the so-called "War on Terror." We now know that there were no weapons of mass destruction in Iraq and that many of us were manipulated into fighting an unjust, pre-emptive war of aggression.  What Manning, Snowden, and Scahill confirm is that manipulation, lies, and covert operations are much more pervasive than we may have understood previously.
All of these operations have something in common: They're being performed in your name, and you are paying for them.
US wars and occupations are not limited to Afghanistan as some might believe.  With the increased use of drone technology, our military is capable of conducting warfare without ever having boots on the ground or pilots in the sky. The civilian casualties are high and US citizens have been targeted. In Dirty Wars, Scahill exposes the realities of US military intervention in Yemen, Somalia, and beyond for what it really is - a covert war conducted outside the range of the press without effective congressional oversight or public debate. And, based on unprecedented access, Scahill tells the chilling story of an American citizen marked for assassination by his own government.
 The film, directed by Rick Rowley, has won the Cinematography Award for U.S. Documentary at the 2013 Sundance Film Festival and the Grand Jury Prize at the Boston Independent Film Festival. Variety calls it "jaw-dropping ... [with] the power to pry open government lockboxes." The Sundance jury said it is "one of the most stunning looking documentaries [we've] ever seen."  
Find out why Manning and Snowden's revelations are so important.  See what's really going on in our name and with our tax dollars.  Find a screening of Dirty Wars near you.

In Solidarity,  
Maggie Martin and Matt Howard
Director of Organizing and Director of Communications

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The Ruses for War

Written by John QuigleyAuthor Alerts:  Random House will alert you to new works by John Quigley

Published by: Prometheus Books


On Sale: September 01, 1992
Pages: 433 | ISBN: 978-0-87975-767-0
More Info...
·                                 Print this page - The Ruses for War
As a prelude to war in 2003, the administration of George W. Bush did its utmost to convince the public that Saddam Hussein’s Iraq posed a threat to American security from the secret development of weapons of mass destruction. Within a year of the U.S. invasion of Iraq, it became clear that no such weapons existed. Sadly, this was not the first time the American public was urged to support a war for reasons that turned out later to be scarcely credible. As law professor John Quigley amply demonstrates in this damning indictment of U.S. military interventionism since World War II, the Bush administration’s actions fit a decades-old pattern of going to war on a pretense rather than informing the public of the government’s true intentions.
This newly updated and revised paperback edition of The Ruses for War analyzes each instance of military intervention abroad by the United States since World War II from the perspective of what the government told the public, or did not tell it, about the reasons for war. Quigley concludes that the government’s explanations differed greatly from reality.
Why were American troops committed to Korea in 1950? Was it to stop the onslaught of world communism, as President Truman claimed? Why did the U.S. Marines land in the Dominican Republic in 1966? President Johnson argued that it was to protect Americans in danger. This is the same defense used by President Reagan when he sent troops to Grenada in 1983. Quigley also analyzes the stated versus actual reasons for intervention in the first Gulf War, Somalia, Kosovo, and other trouble spots. 
What emerges from his research is a tale of coverups, distortions, and manipulation of the media by our country's leaders for the purpose of gaining public support.


American imperialism

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Page semi-protected
This article may contain original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research may be removed. (February 2011)
Spheres of influence during the final phase of the Cold War in the 1980s. The US and USSR are shown in dark green and orange respectively, and their spheres of influence in light green and orange.
A 1900 Campaign poster for theRepublican Party. "The American flag has not been planted in foreign soil to acquire more territory but for humanity's sake.[1]", President William McKinley, July 12, 1900. On one side is shown the situation in 1896, before McKinley's presidential election victory: "Gone Democratic: A run on the bank, Spanish rule in Cuba". On the other side is the situation was in 1900, after four years of McKinley's leadership: "Gone Republican: a run to the bank, American rule in Cuba[2]" (the Spanish–American War took place in 1898).
American imperialism is the economic, military, and cultural influence of the United States on other countries. The concept of an American Empire was first popularized during the presidency of James K. Polk who led the United States into the Mexican–American War of 1846, and the eventual annexation of California and other western territories via the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo and the Gadsden purchase.[3][4]


·                                 1 Imperialism and empire
·                                 2 American exceptionalism
·                                 3 Imperialism at the heart of U.S. foreign policy
·                                 4 Views of American imperialism
o                                        4.1 Empire
·                                 5 U.S. military bases
·                                 6 Benevolent imperialism
·                                 7 Factors unique to the "Age of imperialism"
·                                 8 Debate over U.S. foreign policy
o                                        8.1 Cultural imperialism
·                                 9 See also
·                                 10 Notes and references
·                                 11 Further reading

Imperialism and empire

On the cover of Puckpublished on April 6, 1901, in the wake of gainful victory in theSpanish–American War, Columbia– the National personification of the U.S. – preens herself with anEaster bonnet in the form of a warship bearing the words "World Power" and the word "Expansion" on the smoke coming out of its stack.
Thomas Jefferson, in the 1790s, awaited the fall of the Spanish empire until “our population can be sufficiently advanced to gain it from them piece by piece.”[5][6] In turn, historian Sidney Lens notes that “the urge for expansion – at the expense of other peoples – goes back to the beginnings of the United States itself.”[3]
Stuart Creighton Miller says that the public's sense of innocence about Realpolitik impairs popular recognition of U.S. imperial conduct. The resistance to actively occupying foreign territory has led to policies of exerting influence via other means, including governing other countries via surrogates, where domestically unpopular governments survive only through U.S. support.[7]
The maximum geographical extension of American direct political and military control happened in the aftermath of World War II, in the period after the surrender and occupations of Germany and Austria in May and later Japan and Korea inSeptember 1945 and before the independence of the Philippines in July 1946.[citation needed]

American exceptionalism

Main article: American exceptionalism
American exceptionalism is the theory that the United States occupies a special niche among the nations of the world[8] in terms of its national credo, historical evolution, and political and religious institutions and origins.
Philosopher Douglas Kellner traces the identification of American exceptionalism as a distinct phenomenon back to 19th century French observer Alexis de Tocqueville, who concluded by agreeing that the U.S., uniquely, was "proceeding along a path to which no limit can be perceived."[9]
American exceptionalism is popular among people within the U.S.,[10] but its validity and its consequences are disputed.
As a Monthly Review editorial opines on the phenomenon, "in Britain, empire was justified as a benevolent 'white man’s burden'. And in the United States, empire does not even exist; 'we' are merely protecting the causes of freedom, democracy, and justice worldwide."[11]

Imperialism at the heart of U.S. foreign policy

1898 political cartoon: "Ten Thousand Miles From Tip to Tip" meaning the extension of U.S. domination (symbolized by a bald eagle) from Puerto Rico to the Philippines. The cartoon contrasts this with a map of the smaller United States 100 years earlier in 1798.
Historian Donald W. Meinig says that imperial behavior for the United States dates at least to the Louisiana Purchase, which he describes as an "imperial acquisition – imperial in the sense of the aggressive encroachment of one people upon the territory of another, resulting in the subjugation of that people to alien rule." The U.S. policies towards the Native Americans he said were "designed to remold them into a people more appropriately conformed to imperial desires."[12]
Writers and academics of the early 20th century, like Charles A. Beard, in support of non-interventionism (sometimes referred to in a derogatory manner as "isolationism"), discussed American policy as being driven by self-interested expansionism going back as far as the writing of the Constitution. Some politicians today do not agree. Pat Buchanan claims that the modern United States' drive to empire is "far removed from what the Founding Fathers had intended the young Republic to become."[13]
Andrew Bacevich argues that the U.S. did not fundamentally change its foreign policy after the Cold War, and remains focused on an effort to expand its control across the world.[14] As the surviving superpower at the end of the Cold War, the U.S. could focus its assets in new directions, the future being "up for grabs" according to former Under Secretary of Defense for Policy Paul Wolfowitz in 1991.[15]
In Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media, the political activist Noam Chomsky argues that exceptionalism and the denials of imperialism are the result of a systematic strategy of propaganda, to "manufacture opinion" as the process has long been described in other countries.[16]

Views of American imperialism

Caricature showing Uncle Sam lecturing four children labelled Philippines, Hawaii,Porto Rico [sic] and Cuba in front of children holding books labelled with various U.S. states. The caption reads: "School Begins. Uncle Sam (to his new class in Civilization): Now, children, you've got to learn these lessons whether you want to or not! But just take a look at the class ahead of you, and remember that, in a little while, you will feel as glad to be here as they are!"
Journalist Ashley Smith divides theories of the U.S. imperialism into 5 broad categories: (1) "liberal" theories, (2) "social-democratic" theories, (3) "Leninist" theories, (4) theories of "super-imperialism", and (5) "Hardt-and-Negri-ite" theories.[17][page needed] There is also a conservative, anti-interventionist view as expressed by American journalistJohn T. Flynn:
The enemy aggressor is always pursuing a course of larceny, murder, rapine and barbarism. We are always moving forward with high mission, a destiny imposed by the Deity to regenerate our victims, while incidentally capturing their markets; to civilise savage and senile and paranoid peoples, while blundering accidentally into their oil wells.[18]
A "social-democratic" theory[attribution needed] says that imperialistic U.S. policies are the products of the excessive influence of certain sectors of U.S. business and government—the arms industry in alliance with military and political bureaucracies and sometimes other industries such as oil and finance, a combination often referred to as the "military–industrial complex". The complex is said to benefit from war profiteering and the looting of natural resources, often at the expense of the public interest.[19] The proposed solution is typically unceasing popular vigilance in order to apply counter-pressure.[20] Johnson holds a version of this view.[citation needed]
Alfred T. Mahan, who served as an officer in the U.S. Navy during the late 19th century, supported the notion of American imperialism in his 1890 book titled The Influence of Sea Power upon History. In chapter one Mahan argued that modern industrial nations must secure foreign markets for the purpose of exchanging goods and, consequently, they must maintain a maritime force that is capable of protecting these trade routes.[21][page needed] Mahan's argument provides a context that also justifies imperialism by industrial nations such as the United States.[citation needed]
A theory of "super-imperialism" says[attribution needed] that imperialistic U.S. policies are driven not simply by the interests of American businesses, but by the interests of the economic elites of a global alliance of developed countries.[citation needed] Capitalism in Europe, the U.S., and Japan has become too entangled, in this view, to permit military or geopolitical conflict between these countries, and the central conflict in modern imperialism is between the global core and the global periphery rather than between imperialist powers. Political scientists Leo Panitch and Samuel Gindin hold versions of this view.[22][23][24][25] Lenin argued this view was wishful thinking.[26]


In the book "Empire", Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri argue that "the decline of Empire has begun".[27] Hardt says the Iraq War is a classically imperialist war, and is the last gasp of a doomed strategy.[28] This new era still has colonizing power, but it has moved from national military forces based on an economy of physical goods to networked biopower based on an informational and affective economy. The U.S. is central to the development and constitution of a new global regime of international power and sovereignty, termed Empire, but is decentralized and global, and not ruled by one sovereign state; "the United States does indeed occupy a privileged position in Empire, but this privilege derives not from its similarities to the old European imperialist powers, but from its differences."[29] Hardt and Negri draw on the theories of Spinoza, Foucault, Deleuze, and Italian autonomist marxists.[30][31]
Geographer David Harvey says there has emerged a new type of imperialism due to geographical distinctions as well as uneven levels of development.[32] He says there has emerged three new global economic and politics blocs: the United States, the European Union, and Asia centered around China and Russia.[33][verification needed] He says there are tensions between the three major blocs over resources and economic power, citing the 2003 invasion of Iraq, whose goal was to prevent rivals from controlling oil.[34] Furthermore, Harvey argues there can arise conflict within the major blocs between capitalists and politicians due to their opposing economic interests.[35] Politicians, on the other hand, live in geographically fixed locations and are, in the U.S. and Europe, accountable to the electorate. The 'new' imperialism, then, has led to an alignment of the interests of capitalists and politicians in order to prevent the rise and expansion of possible economic and political rivals from challenging America's dominance.[36]
Neoconservative Victor Davis Hanson dismisses the notion of an American empire altogether, mockingly comparing it to other empires: "We do not send out proconsuls to reside over client states, which in turn impose taxes on coerced subjects to pay for the legions. Instead, American bases are predicated on contractual obligations — costly to us and profitable to their hosts. We do not see any profits in Korea, but instead accept the risk of losing almost 40,000 of our youth to ensure that Kias can flood our shores and that shaggy students can protest outside our embassy in Seoul."[37]

U.S. military bases

Chalmers Johnson argues that America's version of the colony is the military base.[38] Chip Pitts argues similarly that enduring U.S. bases in Iraq suggest a vision of "Iraq as a colony".[39]
While territories such as Guam, the United States Virgin Islands, the Northern Mariana Islands, American Samoa, and Puerto Rico remain under U.S. control, the U.S. allowed many of its overseas territories or occupations to gain independence after World War II. Examples include the Philippines (1946), the Panama canal zone (1979), Palau (1981), the Federated States of Micronesia (1986), and the Marshall Islands (1986). Most of them still have U.S. bases within their territories. In the case of Okinawa, which came under U.S. administration after the battle of Okinawa during World War II, this happened despite local popular opinion.[40] As of 2003, the United States had bases in over 36 countries worldwide.[41]

Benevolent imperialism

Main article: Neoconservatism
Max Boot defends U.S. imperialism by claiming: "U.S. imperialism has been the greatest force for good in the world during the past century. It has defeated communism and Nazism and has intervened against the Taliban and Serbian ethnic cleansing." Boot willingly used "imperialism" to describe United States policy, not only in the early 20th century but "since at least 1803".[42][43]
Columnist Charles Krauthammer says, "People are now coming out of the closet on the word 'empire.'" This embrace of empire is made by manyneoconservatives, including British historian Paul Johnson, and writers Dinesh D'Souza and Mark Steyn. It is also made by some liberal hawks, such as political scientist Zbigniew Brzezinski, and Michael Ignatieff.[44]
For instance, British historian Niall Ferguson argues that the United States is an empire, but believes that this is a good thing. Ferguson has drawn parallels between the British Empire and the imperial role of the United States in the late 20th and early 21st centuries, though he describes the United States' political and social structures as more like those of the Roman Empire than of the British. Ferguson argues that all these empires have had both positive and negative aspects, but that the positive aspects of the U.S. empire will, if it learns from history and its mistakes, greatly outweigh its negative aspects.[45][page needed]
Another point of view believes United States expansion overseas has been imperialistic, but this imperialism as a temporary phenomenon, a corruption of American ideals or the relic of a past historical era. Historian Samuel Flagg Bemis argues that Spanish–American War expansionism was a short-lived imperialistic impulse and "a great aberration in American history", a very different form of territorial growth than that of earlier American history.[46] HistorianWalter LaFeber sees the Spanish–American War expansionism not as an aberration, but as a culmination of United States expansion westward.[47] But both agree that the end of the occupation of the Philippines marked the end of U.S. empire, hence denying that present United States foreign policy is imperialistic.
Historian Victor Davis Hanson argues that the U.S. does not pursue world domination, but maintains worldwide influence by a system of mutually beneficial exchanges.[48]
Liberal internationalists argue that even though the present world order is dominated by the United States, the form taken by that dominance is not imperial. International relations scholar John Ikenberry argues that international institutions have taken the place of empire.[49]
International relations scholar Joseph Nye argues that U.S. power is more and more based on "soft power", which comes from cultural hegemony rather than raw military or economic force.[50] This includes such factors as the widespread desire to emigrate to the United States, the prestige and corresponding high proportion of foreign students at U.S. universities, and the spread of U.S. styles of popular music and cinema. Thus the U.S., no matter how hegemonic, can no longer be considered to be an 'empire' in the classic sense of the term.

Factors unique to the "Age of imperialism"

A variety of factors may have coincided during the "Age of Imperialism" in the late 19th century, when the United States and the other major powers rapidly expanded their territorial possessions. Some of these are explained, or used as examples for the various perceived forms of American imperialism.
·                    The prevalence of racism, notably Ernst Haeckel's "biogenic law," John Fiske's conception of Anglo-Saxon racial superiority, and Josiah Strong's call to "civilize and Christianize" – all manifestations of a growing Social Darwinism and racism in some schools of American political thought.[51]
·                    Early in his career, as Assistant Secretary of the Navy, Roosevelt was instrumental in preparing the Navy for the Spanish–American War[52] and was an enthusiastic proponent of testing the U.S. military in battle, at one point stating "I should welcome almost any war, for I think this country needs one".[53][54][55]

Debate over U.S. foreign policy

Some scholars defend the historical role of the U.S.,[56] and certain prominent political figures, such as former Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, have argued that "[The U.S. does not] seek empires. We're not imperialistic. We never have been."[57]
Thorton wrote that "[...]imperialism is more often the name of the emotion that reacts to a series of events than a definition of the events themselves. Where colonization finds analysts and analogies, imperialism must contend with crusaders for and against."[58] Political theorist Michael Walzer argues that the termhegemony is better than empire to describe the US's role in the world;[59] political scientist Robert Keohane agrees saying, a "balanced and nuanced analysis is not the use of the phrase 'empire' to describe United States hegemony, since 'empire' obscures rather than illuminates the differences in form of rule between the United States and other Great Powers, such as Great Britain in the 19th century or the Soviet Union in the twentieth."[60]
Other political scientists, such as Daniel Nexon and Thomas Wright, argue that neither term exclusively describes foreign relations of the United States. The U.S. can be, and has been, simultaneously an empire and a hegemonic power. They claim that the general trend in U.S. foreign relations has been away from imperial modes of control.[61]

Cultural imperialism

Some critics of imperialism argue that military and cultural imperialism are interdependent. American Edward Said, one of the founders of post-colonial theory, said that,
[...], so influential has been the discourse insisting on American specialness, altruism and opportunity, that imperialism in the United States as a word or ideology has turned up only rarely and recently in accounts of the United States culture, politics and history. But the connection between imperial politics and culture in North America, and in particular in the United States, is astonishingly direct.[62]
International relations scholar David Rothkopf disagrees and argues that cultural imperialism is the innocent result of globalization, which allows access to numerous U.S. and Western ideas and products that many non-U.S. and non-Western consumers across the world voluntarily choose to consume.[63] Matthew Fraser has a similar analysis, but argues further that the global cultural influence of the U.S. is a good thing.[64]

See also

Crystal Clear app kedit.svg
This section may be in need of reorganization to comply with Wikipedia's layout guidelines. Please help by editing the article to make improvements to the overall structure. (January 2013)
·                    51st state
·                    American Century
·                    American stereotypes
·                    Americanization
·                    Anti-Americanism
·                    Anti-imperialism
·                    Criticism of American foreign policy
·                    Inverted totalitarianism
·                    Loss of China
·                    Manifest Destiny
·                    Neocolonialism
·                    New Imperialism
·                    Non-interventionism
·                    Territories of the United States

Notes and references

1.                              ^ George Thomas Kurian (1997).The encyclopedia of the Republican Party. Sharpe. pp. 91. ISBN 978-1-56324-729-3.
2.                              ^ However, regarding "American rule in Cuba", the 1898 Teller Amendment had mandated that the U.S. could not annex Cuba but only leave "control of the island to its people." After Spanish troops left the island in December 1898, the United States occupied Cuba until 1902 and, as promised in the Teller Amendment, did not attempt to annex the island. Under the Platt Amendment, crafted in 1901 by U.S. Secretary of War Elihu Root to replace the Teller Amendment, however, important decisions of the government of Cuba remained subject to override by the United States. This suzerainty bred resentment toward the U.S.
3.                              ^ a b Lens, Sidney; Zinn, Howard (2003) [1971]. The Forging of the American Empire. London: Pluto Press. ISBN 0-7453-2100-3.
4.                              ^ Field, James A., Jr. (June 1978). "American Imperialism: The Worst Chapter in Almost Any Book". The American Historical Review 83 (3): 644–668.doi:10.2307/1861842.JSTOR 1861842.
5.                              ^ Susan Welch; John Gruhl; Susan M. Rigdon; Sue Thomas (2011). Understanding American Government. Cengage Learning. pp. 583, 671 (note 3). ISBN 978-0-495-91050-3.
6.                              ^ Walter LaFeber (1993).Inevitable Revolutions: The United States in Central America. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-393-30964-5.
7.                              ^ Johnson, Chalmers, Blowback: The Costs and Consequences of American Empire (2000), pp.72–9
8.                              ^ Frederick Jackson Turner,"Significance of the Frontier", (archived from the original on May 21, 2008).
9.                              ^ Kellner, Douglas (April 25, 2003). "American Exceptionalism". Archived fromthe original on February 17, 2006. Retrieved February 20, 2006.
10.                          ^ Edwords, Frederick (November/December 1987). "The religious character of American patriotism. It's time to recognize our traditions and answer some hard questions.".The Humanist (p. 20-24, 36).
11.                          ^ Magdoff, Harry; John Bellamy Foster (November 2001). "After the Attack...The War on Terrorism". Monthly Review 53(6): 7. Retrieved October 8, 2009.
12.                          ^ Meinig, Donald W. (1993). The Shaping of America: A Geographical Perspective on 500 Years of History, Volume 2: Continental America, 1800–1867. Yale University Press. pp. 22–23, 170–196, 516–517. ISBN 0-300-05658-3.
13.                          ^ Buchanan, Pat (1999). A Republic, Not an Empire: Reclaiming America's Destiny. Washington, DC: Regnery Publishing. ISBN 0-89526-272-X.p. 165.
14.                          ^ Bacevich, Andrew (2004).American Empire: The Realities and Consequences of U.S. Diplomacy. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-01375-1.
15.                          ^ ERIC SCHMITT, "Washington at Work; Ex-Cold Warrior Sees the Future as 'Up for Grabs'" The New York Times December 23, 1991.
16.                          ^ Edward Hallett Carr, The Twenty Years' Crisis 1919–1939: An Introduction to the Study of International Relations, 1939.
17.                          ^ Smith, Ashley (June 24, 2006). "The Classical Marxist Theory of Imperialism". Socialism 2006.Columbia University.
18.                          ^ Flynn, John T. (1944) As We Go Marching. p.240
19.                          ^ C. Wright Mills, The Causes of World War Three, Simon and Schuster, 1958, pp. 52, 111
20.                          ^ Flynn, John T. (1944) As We Go Marching.
21.                          ^ Alfred Thayer Mahan (1987).The Influence of Sea Power upon History, 1660–1783. Courier Dover Publications. ISBN 978-0-486-25509-5.
22.                          ^ Leo Panitch, "What you need to know about May Day"
23.                          ^ Leo Panitch, "Whose Violence? Imperial State Security and the Global Justice Movement" Jan, 2005
24.                          ^ Leo Panitch, "Putting the U.S. Economic Crisis in Perspective" January 31, 2008
25.                          ^ Leo Panitch and Sam Gindin,"The Current Crisis: A Socialist Perspective" September 30, 2008
26.                          ^ BRIAN JONES, "Imperialism, The Highest Stage of Capitalism"International Socialist ReviewIssue 44, November–December 2005
27.                          ^ Empire hits back. The Observer, July 15, 2001.
28.                          ^ Hardt, Michael (July 13, 2006)."From Imperialism to Empire".The Nation.
29.                          ^ Negri, Antonio; Hardt, Michael (2000). Empire. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-00671-2. Retrieved October 8, 2009. p. xiii–xiv.
30.                          ^ Michael Hardt, Gilles Deleuze: an Apprenticeship in Philosophy,ISBN 0-8166-2161-6
31.                          ^Autonomism#Italian_autonomism
32.                          ^ Harvey, David (2005). The new imperialism. Oxford University Press. p. 101. ISBN 978-0-19-927808-4.
33.                          ^ Harvey 2005, p. 31.
34.                          ^ Harvey 2005, pp. 77–78.
35.                          ^ Harvey 2005, p. 187.
36.                          ^ Harvey 2005, pp. 76–78
37.                          ^ VDH's Private Papers::A Funny Sort of Empire
38.                          ^ America's Empire of Bases
39.                          ^ Pitts, Chip (November 8, 2006)."The Election on Empire". The National Interest. Retrieved October 8, 2009.
40.                          ^ Patrick Smith, Pay Attention to Okinawans and Close the U.S. Bases, International Herald Tribune (Opinion section), March 6, 1998.
41.                          ^ "Base Structure Report"(PDF). USA Department of Defense. 2003. Archived from the original on January 10, 2007. Retrieved January 23, 2007.
42.                          ^ American Imperialism? No Need to Run Away From the Label USA Today May 6, 2003
44.                          ^ Heer, Jeet (March 23, 2003)."Operation Anglosphere".Boston Globe. Retrieved October 8, 2009.
45.                          ^ Ferguson, Niall (June 2, 2005).Colossus: The Rise and Fall of the American Empire. Penguin.ISBN 0-14-101700-7.
46.                          ^ Miller, Stuart Creighton (1982)."Benevolent Assimilation" The American Conquest of the Philippines, 1899–1903. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-02697-8. p. 3.
47.                          ^ Lafeber, Walter (1975). The New Empire: An Interpretation of American Expansion, 1860–1898. Cornell University Press.ISBN 0-8014-9048-0.
48.                          ^ Hanson, Victor Davis (November 2002). "A Funny Sort of Empire". National Review. Retrieved October 8, 2009.
49.                          ^ Ikenberry, G. John (March/April 2004). "Illusions of Empire: Defining the New American Order". Foreign Affairs.
50.                          ^ Cf. Nye, Joseph Jr. 2005. Soft Power: The Means to Success in World Politics. Public Affairs. 208 pp.
51.                          ^ Thomas Friedman, "The Lexus and the Olive Tree", p. 381, and Manfred Steger, "Globalism: The New Market Ideology," and Jeff Faux, "Flat Note from the Pied Piper of Globalization," Dissent, Fall 2005, pp. 64–67.
52.                          ^ Brands, Henry William. (1997).T.R.: The Last Romantic. New York: Basic Books. Reprinted 2001, full biography OCLC 36954615, ch 12
53.                          ^ "April 16, 1897: T. Roosevelt Appointed Assistant Secretary of the Navy". Crucible of Empire – Timeline. PBS Online. Retrieved July 26, 2007.
54.                          ^ "Transcript For "Crucible Of Empire"". Crucible of Empire – Timeline. PBS Online. Retrieved July 26, 2007.
55.                          ^ Tilchin, William N. Theodore Roosevelt and the British Empire: A Study in Presidential Statecraft (1997)
56.                          ^ See, for instance, Michael Mann (2005), Incoherent Empire(Verso); Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. (2005), "The American Empire? Not so fast", World Policy, Volume XXII, No 1, Spring;
57.                          ^ Bookman, Jay (June 25, 2003)."Let's just say it's not an empire". Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Retrieved October 8, 2009.
58.                          ^ Thornton, Archibald Paton (September 1978). Imperialism in the Twentieth Century. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-24848-1.
59.                          ^ Walzer, Michael. "Is There an American Empire?" Archived from the original on October 21, 2006. Retrieved June 10, 2006.
60.                          ^ Keohane, Robert O. "The United States and the Postwar Order: Empire or Hegemony?" (Review of Geir Lundestad, The American Empire) Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 28, No. 4 (November , 1991), p. 435
61.                          ^ Nexon, Daniel and Wright, Thomas "What’s at Stake in the American Empire Debate"American Political Science Review, Vol. 101, No. 2 (May 2007), p. 266-267
62.                          ^ Said, Edward. Culture and Imperialism, speech at York University, Toronto, February 10, 1993. (archived fromthe original on October 13, 2007).
63.                          ^ Rothkopf, David In Praise of Cultural Imperialism? Foreign Policy, Number 107, Summer 1997, pp. 38-53
64.                          ^ Fraser, Matthew (2005).Weapons of Mass Distraction: Soft Power and American Empire. St. Martin's Press.

Further reading

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: American Imperialism

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: American benevolence
·                    Bacevich, Andrew (2008). The Limits of Power: The End of American Exceptionalism. Macmillan. ISBN 0-8050-8815-6.
·                    Boot, Max (2002). The Savage Wars of Peace: Small Wars and the Rise of American Power. Basic Books.ISBN 0-465-00721-X.
·                    Brown, Seyom (1994). Faces of Power: Constancy and Change in United States Foreign Policy from Truman to Clinton. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-09669-0.
·                    Burton, David H. (1968). Theodore Roosevelt: Confident Imperialist. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. ASIN B0007GMSSY.
·                    Callahan, Patrick (2003). Logics of American Foreign Policy: Theories of America's World Role. New York: Longman. ISBN 0-321-08848-4.
·                    Card, Orson Scott (2006). Empire. TOR. ISBN 0-7653-1611-0.
·                    Daalder, Ivo H.; James M. Lindsay (2003). America Unbound: The Bush Revolution in Foreign Policy. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution. ISBN 0-8157-1688-5.
·                    Fulbright, J. William; Seth P. Tillman (1989). The Price of Empire. Pantheon Books. ISBN 0-394-57224-6.
·                    Gaddis, John Lewis (2005). Strategies of Containment: A Critical Appraisal of Postwar American National Security Policy (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-517447-X.
·                    Hardt, Michael; Antonio Negri (2001). Empire. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-00671-2. online
·                    Huntington, Samuel P. (1996). The Clash of Civilizations. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-81164-2.
·                    Johnson, Chalmers (2000). Blowback: The Costs and Consequences of American Empire. New York: Holt. ISBN 0-8050-6239-4.
·                    Johnson, Chalmers (2004). The Sorrows of Empire: Militarism, Secrecy, and the End of the Republic. New York: Metropolitan Books. ISBN 0-8050-7004-4.
·                    Johnson, Chalmers (2007). Nemesis: The Last Days of the American Republic. New York, NY: Metropolitan Books. ISBN 0-8050-7911-4.
·                    Kagan, Robert (2003). Of Paradise and Power: America and Europe in the New World Order. New York: Knopf. ISBN 1-4000-4093-0.
·                    Kerry, Richard J. (1990). The Star-Spangled Mirror: America's Image of Itself and the World. Savage, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 0-8476-7649-8.
·                    Lundestad, Geir (1998). Empire by Integration: The United States and European Integration, 1945–1997. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-878212-8.
·                    Meyer, William H. (2003). Security, Economics, and Morality in American Foreign Policy: Contemporary Issues in Historical Context. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-086390-4.
·                    Nye, Joseph S., Jr (2002). The Paradox of American Power: Why the World’s Only Superpower Can’t Go It Alone. New York: Oxford University Press.ISBN 0-19-515088-0.
·                    Odom, William; Robert Dujarric (2004). America's Inadvertent Empire. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-10069-8.
·                    Patrick, Stewart; Shepard Forman, eds. (2001). Multilateralism and U.S. Foreign Policy: Ambivalent Engagement. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner. ISBN 1-58826-042-9.
·                    Perkins, John (2004). Confessions of an Economic Hit Man. Tihrān: Nashr-i Akhtarān. ISBN 1-57675-301-8.
·                    Rapkin, David P., ed. (1990). World Leadership and Hegemony. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner. ISBN 1-55587-189-5.
·                    Ruggie, John G., ed. (1993). Multilateralism Matters: The Theory and Praxis of an Institutional Form. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-07980-8.
·                    Smith, Tony (1994). America's Mission: The United States and the Worldwide Struggle for Democracy in the Twentieth Century. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-03784-1.
·                    Tomlinson, John (1991). Cultural Imperialism: A Critical Introduction. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-4250-6.
·                    Todd, Emmanuel (2004). After the Empire: The Breakdown of the American Order. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-13103-2.
·                    Tremblay, Rodrigue (2004). The New American Empire. Haverford, PA: Infinity Pub. ISBN 0-7414-1887-8.
·                    Zepezauer, Mark (2002). Boomerang! : How Our Covert Wars Have Created Enemies Across the Middle East and Brought Terror to America. Monroe, Maine: Common Courage Press. ISBN 1-56751-222-4.
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[See: US Westward Imperialism, Pacific, E. Asia Newsletters. –Dick]

1.                             American imperialism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Searches related to US Navy, US imperialism

An analysis of “Being There Matters: Making the Case for a Strong Navy” by Rear Adm. (Res.) Luke M. McCollum.  Arkansas Democrat-Gazette (June 29, 2013) .  McCollum calls Bentonville his home.
          “Maintaining a strong Navy is a significant investment, but it is also a very prudent and sound one—one that provides a valuable return in terms of protecting our nation’s security, prosperity and the American way of life,” writes the McCollum.  The US Navy is “patrolling what is essentially the world’s interstate ocean highway system, ensuring the free flow of global trade and, in turn, preserving America’s economic prosperity.”  
       Let me get this straight.  The US Navy is the only highway patrol, as if the Arkansas Highway Patrol would patrol the other states’ highways, or the US Army would be the International Highway Patrol controlling speeding cars in France or bicycles in Sri Lanka?   And the other nations’ navies, they are protecting their security, their prosperity,  and their way of life?   Apparently not, you don’t discuss that issue.   But it sounds rather risky for the other nations.  Don’t they want to protect their nation’s security, prosperity, and way of life; don’t they wish to preserve their economic prosperity?   You overlooked that?
     You also say the US Navy is there “around the clock, far from our shores, defending America at all times,” protecting “America’s interest anywhere and at any time.”   
      Slow down there Admiral.   It sounds like you are saying our Highway Patrol of international waters is there not for the nations of the world, but for the US only.   Doesn’t that put the other nations of the world at a considerable disadvantage, particularly when they remember that the US commands eight carrier battle groups, more than all the other nations possess all together?
     “When America’s national security is threatened by the existence of an adversary on the other side of the world, being there matters.”
     Hold on Admiral, you’re racing full speed ahead.   What do you mean by US national security?  What sort of adversary are you referring to?   A nation that dislikes having a carrier battle group parked near their shore?
     “Where these threats exist, chances are high that Navy ships, submarines, aircraft, and special forces are very close by, with the ability to mitigate the threat, even if the threat is hundreds of miles inland.”
      I asked you to slow down.  Or do you think you are talking to a class of midshipmen?   What kind of threat are you referring to? Are you saying that thanks to the US Navy full spectrum dominance is generally available to attack any nation any time or place regardless of the UN Charter and other treaties?   That sounds like an irresponsible bully.  Like invasion.   Like an act of war!   Why I believe it would be.   Who can, who can and would do such a thing?  And by the way, by “mitigate” to you mean bombs, cluster bombs, cruise missiles?
     “When the decision is made to act on one of these threats, the solution may involve launching attack jets or unmanned aircraft from aircraft carriers, firing cruise missiles from ships or submarines, or inserting a team of Navy SEALS to do what only Navy SEALs can do.”
      You already made your point, but I suppose an Admiral can’t be expected to overlook special praise for its forces, even when illegal and unconstitutional, though does he really want to praise the SEALs’ unique capability of murdering an unarmed man and dumping his body in the ocean?   But back to my question, though I already guess the answer:  who can violate international law so extremely?
      “The Navy can do all of these things, and do them all from the sea, without the need to get another country’s permission to operate within its borders.”
     But what are we to say to Justice Jackson?   "To initiate a war of aggression, therefore, is not only an international crime, it is the supreme international crime differing only from other war crimes in that it contains within itself the accumulated evil of the whole." -- Robert H. Jackson, Chief U.S. Prosecutor, Nuremberg Military Tribunal .


U.S. Military Diplomacy – From Wounded Knee to Afghanistan
March 16, 2011 "Information Clearing House" -- Poetry
By Larry Kerschner

1890 Wounded Knee, South Dakota Lakota massacred by U.S. Army

A blue-coated motorcycle gang
armed with rifles and pistols
rolled into this peaceful
residential neighborhood at dawn today.
Chankpe Opi Wakpala community members
were herded
together and shot down.
Unarmed men, women and children were
pulled from their homes.
Commenting on reports that
those trying to flee were run down and
shot in the back,
one biker is quoted as saying
It was great sport
like shooting fish in a barrel.

Reports of the number killed
range from 150 to 370.

1890 Buenos Aires, Argentina- U.S. troops
intervene to protect U.S. business interests
1891 U.S. troops battle with nationalists in Chile

walking backward
my hidden face
does not go before me
I cannot see
the dogs of war
I hear
blood and tears
dripping down
I hear
children become gravediggers
boy soldiers flung into the dark
I hear
the knife
tearing cartilage between
the ribs

I hear two lovers
one is walking backward

1891 U.S. Navy in Rio De Janeiro, Brazil to
protect American commercial interests
1892 U.S. Army kills 12 railroad workers
on strike in Chicago
1893 U.S. Marines help overthrow the
Kingdom of Hawaii
1894 U.S. Army occupies Bluefield region
in Nicaragua
1894-95 U.S. Marines land in China during
Sino-Japanese War
1894-96 U.S. Marines present in Seoul, Korea
1895 U.S. Navy and Marines land in the
Colombian province which is now Panama
1896 U.S. Marines show the colors in Corinto,
Nicaragua during political unrest
1897 U.S. military forcefully suppresses a silver
miner's strike in Idaho

driving I remember to note
sites which would be good for an ambush
walking I watch the ground for
dirt which may have been disturbed
in the laying of mines
nearly forty years later
I still expect the bullet
to hit that spot
just below my left scapula
that always itches
like a target

nearly forty years later
I remember when we were boy warriors
thrown together far from home

(gun smoke thick as fog
hot brass litter
the lamb-like small of napalm
burnt indigenous personnel
pile of bodies
slowly moving limbs in rigor
greenthick vietnamese jungle vines
sticky red clay mud in monsoon reason)

if he wasn't part of that
piece of me that couldn't come home
maybe I could
remember my friend's face
nearly forty years later

1898-01 U.S. Navy and Army seize Phillipines from
Spain killing 600,000 Filipinos
1898 U.S. Navy and Army seize Cuba from Spain,
we still have base at Guantanamo Bay
1898 U.S. Navy and Army seize Puerto Rico from
Spain, our occupation continues
1898 U.S. Navy and Army seize Guam from Spain,
we still have military bases there
1898 U.S. Marines land at San Juan del Sur, Nicaragua
1899 U.S. Army battle Chippewa tribe at
Leech Lake, Minnesota

finally in each war there are no heroes only wasted victims
conscientiously objecting to another stupid useless death
(arresting warm blood torn from leaking limbs
lung rasped pink bubbles froth their breath)
howmany more times is hell to be let loose
cursing youngsters we say we love best
children sacrificed who may finally see
our lies as a clear patriotic ruse
dulce et decorum est
pro patria

1900 U.S. troops fight to put down Boxer
Rebellion in China
1900 U.S. Marines and Army again use force in
Bluefield, Nicaragua
1900 U.S. Army occupies Coeur d'Alene Idaho
silver mining region
1901 U.S. Army attacks Creek tribe in Oklahoma
1902 U.S. military supports the province
(now Panama) seceding from Colombia
1903 U.S. Marines intervene against a popular
uprising in Honduras
1903 U.S. Marines land in Abysinnia
1903-04 U.S. military invades Dominican Republic
to protect U.S. business interests
1904 U.S. Marines land in Morocco
1904-05 U.S. Marines land in Korea during
Russo-Japanese War
1906 U.S. Marines invade Cuba during
their election

a talking head warmachine propagandist
on NPR yesterday asked
who is winning the war
in that tone that assumes a winner

I don't know who might be winning

but I sure as hell know
who is losing

what if they gave a war and nobody came

fat and flatulent empire sucking
blood sucking oil sucking
spitting out the thin bones
of collateral damage
without even savoring the taste of the dead

the dark lord masterfully marches in place
behind a curtain in his white palace
ordering the imperial storm troopers to attention
with no comprehension
his nose pressed tight into this corner of history
blind with no peripheral or any other vision

what if they gave a war and nobody came

Gandhiji assures us that light is persistent
even in the darkness
Dr. king had a dream
for his children and yours and mine
all God's children
love will bubble up between us
in our ordinary lives
when we see each other
as we are without power
or prejudice

hope is in justice
justice is in hope

what if they gave a war and nobody came

1907 U.S. Army sets up a protectorate in Nicaragua
1908 U.S. Marines land in Honduras during war
with Nicaragua
1909 U.S. Marines intervene in elections in Panama
1910 U.S, Marines again invade Bluefield and
Corinto, Nicaragua
1911-41 30 years of continuous occupation of
parts of China by U.S. Navy and Army

the voice of the official prophet
speaks the words that must be seen
a reluctant vision
in which suffering has a reason
a positive tale
of the heavy-fruited tree of grief
that can be viewed from either side of the fence
in this story a willing heart
may be the cure for life
a dance where the flesh machine
steps in and out of the grave in grand style
to the sound of an ancient military tune

1912 U.S. Army goes to Havana, Cuba to protect
U.S. business interests
1912 U.S. Marines land in Honduras to protect
American commercial interests
1912-33 U.S. Army 20 year occupation and war with
guerilla peasants in Nicaragua
1913 U.S. Navy intervenes to evacuate Americans
from Mexico during their revolution
1913 U.S. Marines again land in Panama to effect
outcome of local election
1914-99 U.S. military forces annex and occupy
Panama Canal Zone
1914 U.S. Navy fights with anti-government rebels
at Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic

after we are the ones to survive
after the chill
after the heat
after we have killed but
before we have thoughts of being loved
we sing a manly song
martial and stirring
not low and blue we sing
when and because
we are distanced from the front
a reminder to remember
to forget what we want forgotten
we sing our loud song of silence
we sing again
and again
until it is done
until it is gone

1914 U.S. Army breaks up a miners strike in Colorado
1914-18 U.S. Army and Navy in a series of
interventions against Mexicam nationalists
1915-34 U.S. Army in 19 year occupation of Haiti
1916-24 U.S. Marines in 8 year occupation of Haiti
1917-33 U.S. Army 16 year occupation of Cuba
1917-19 U.S. military in World War I

the war to end war
to end war to
end war to end
war to end war
to end war

1918-20 U.S. Army and Navy land in Siberia to
fight against Bolsheviks
1918-20 U.S. troops in “police duty” suppressing
discontent after elections in Panama
1918 U.S. Army enters Mexico chasing “banditos”
1919 U.S. Marines intervene in Yugoslavia for
Italy against the Serbs in Dalmatia
1920 U.S. Marines land in Honduras to effect
the results of a local election

1920-21 U.S. Army forcefully puts down a strike
of miners in West Virginia
1921 U.S. Army in two week intervention in
Guatemala against union organizers
1922 U.S. Army fought against nationalists
in Smyrna, Turkey

a black granite wall to rest against
each name an act calling for re-write

58,195 times rendered unto Caesar
58,195 rendered like fat on a hot stove

1922-27 U.S. Army and Navy deployed in China during
nationalist uprising
1924-25 U.S. Army landed twice in Honduras during
their elections
1925 U.S. Marines suppress a general strike by
the workers of Panama
1926-33 U.S. Marines in seven year occupation of

I have deemed it my duty to use the powers
comitted to me to ensure the adequate protection
of all American interests in Nicaragua, whether they
be endangered by internal strife or by outside interference
in the affairs of that republic.
--Calvin Coolidge, 1926

1932 U.S. Navy warships sent to El Salvidor during
Faribundo Marti revolt
1933 U.S. Army uses force to stop WWI veterans
bonus protest march in Washington D.C.
1934 U.S. Marines land at Foochow, China
1941 Greenland and Iceland taken under U.S.
military protection

nights he still comes to me
eyes clear
black and white
unlike his body
yellow and red

this spectre
of a rising tide of godless communism
amidst the tangled pile
of bodies

the 300 piastres
and the red-starred belt
I took from his body

1943 U.S. Army forcefully puts down a rebellion of Black citizens in Detroit
1945 50,000 U.S. Marines sent to Northern China
1945 Military occupation of South Korea which continues today
1946 U.S. threatened Soviet troops in Iranian Azerbaijan with nuclear weapons
1946 U.S. Navy responded in Yugoslavia to shooting down of U.S. plane
1947 U.S. nuclear bombers deployed over Uruguay in a show of strength
1948 U.S. Marines evacuate Americans from mainland China

cardinals and bishops call it a just war
just because the president said so
just because they hurt us
just because we can
just because not enough of us said no
just because the snow falls and the shadows grow longer each day
just because we see it on CNN
just because after the bombs fall there is no one left to hear
just because

1948 U.S. nuclear bombers threaten the Soviets over Berlin airlift
1948 U.S. Marines to Palestine
1950-53 U.S. troops in Korean civil war; tthreaten China with nuclear weapons
1953 U.S. military and CIA overthrow democracy and install Shah of Iranian

Every gun that is made, every warship launched, every
rocket fired, signifies, in the final sense, a theft from
those who hunger and are not fed, those who are cold
and are not clothed. Pres. D.D. Eisenhower 1953

1954 U.S. offers use of nuclear weapons to French to
use against siege in Viet Nam
1955 U.S. bombs Guatemala from bases in Nicaragua
after Guatemala nationalized U.S. business
1956 U.S. threatens Soviets with nuclear weapons
during Suez Canal crisis in Egypt
1958 U.S troops occupy Lebanon
1958 Iraq threatened with nuclear weapons to
prevent invasion of Kuwait
1959 U.S. troops forcefully stop political protests
in Panama
1960 U.S. military advisers begin to be used in
numbers in Viet Nam

weapons of mass destruction

jesus wept
tears slick and shiny like blood
salt falling to the earth
wept words
chemical words
biological words
radiological words
wept puns
double meaning of mass
black hole
air hole
ass hole
bullet hole
rabbit hole

holy mass
a catholic ritual
making us all holy this day
dum de dum dum
haunted by the ghosts of children
banging on the catatonic piano
struck with the brutality of it all
struck with the futility of it all
shun this thought
stay in your place
self censor

three dimensional auditory weapons of mass illusion

1961 U.S. military and CIA train commandos for
operation against Cuba at Bay of the Pigs
1962 U.S. government threatens to use nuclear
weapons in Berlin Wall crisis
1963 U.S Army shoots Panamanian citizens
protesting about return of canal

madres llorosa

she was last seen
in a photograph

peasant dress
little protection
between her and the roadstones

between her
and the boy soldiers

the body lying there
something like her son

1964 U.S. military assists Indonesian Army coup
in which one million were killed
1964-75 Viet Nam War
1965-66 U.S. Marines land in Dominican Republic
during their election campaign
1966-67 U.S. Green Berets intervene in Guatemala
against anti-government rebels

we move out of the treeline
spread out surround the huts
the village headman says
two wounded men died
and were buried
several days before

a green black shimmer
rises (after three days;
the sun)
the skin
taut with gangrenous gas
with the weight of a landing fly
pus to dust

we dig
small men's bones
in a small hole
a soup of khaki straps and steel buckles
stirred and sifted
for intelligence

1967 U.S. Army battles U.S. citizens in Detroit killing 43
1968 21.000 U.S. troops on the streets of American
cities after MLK assassination
1969 U.S. Army and Navy secretly attack North
Vietnamese and Viet Cong in Cambodia

a bullet manages to exist
without a mind of it's own
slowed to sixteen frames per second
it barely precedes the out-flowering
crimson and grey
from the back of the skull

dead is still dead
despite any noise of martial music and honor
the dead don't awaken

1970 U.S. troops invade Cambodia
1971 U.S. Air Force “carpet-bombs” Laos while
directing a South Vietnamese invasion
1972 U.S. Army supports the FBI in seige against
Lakota at Wounded Knee, South Dakota
1973 U.S. military in world-wide alert nuclear
threat against those attacking Israel
1974 U.S. military and CIA command operation
assassinating the elected President of Chile

backs to the white bright light
young men wearing goggles
a boy soldier among many
dug into the Nevada desert
sand scoured grey mesquite
secure the area

following orders
he knew no
Korea no
Viet Nam no
his was an Eisenhower
time of piece

now his Auschwitz eyes in sunken sockets
this atomic vision
shadowed him
these twenty-five years
sallow grey
against white sheets
death fetid breath
stomach gone to gastric cancer
100 milligrams of morphine each hour
a time of peace

he spoke briefly
of a bright white light

1975 U.S. bombs Cambodia during attempt to free
captured ship Mayguez
1976 U.S. military command assists South Africans
attacking rebels in Angola
1978 U.S. Air Force provides logistical support to
French in Zaire
1980 U.S. in aborted bombing raid/hostage rescue
from U.S. Embassy in Iran
1981 U.S. Navy shoots down two Libyan jets during
1982 U.S. Navy mines a harbor in Nicaragua as
part of U.S. support of Contras

We have never interfered in the internal government of a country
and have no intention of doing so, never had any thought of that
kind. Pres. Ronald Reagan, 09-28-1982

1982 U.S. Marines expel the PLO from Lebanon
while the U.S. Navy bombs Syria

this militaristic corporate statist
religion alive in our midst
barely hides the bronze face of Moloch
Canaanite sun god risen again amongst us
this god whose face is ours
whose name is consumption
whose tongue is greed
demands the sacrifice of our children
in blood and madness
name them warriors these boy soldiers
and our daughters now
to kill or be killed
a death hunger never satisfied

dance with the flute and cymbal
sing the patriotic anthems
loud martial songs
to drown the voices
and screams of the dying

1983 U.S. military builds bases on the border between
Honduras and Nicaragua for Contras
1983 U.S. bombs and invades Grenada four years
after their revolution
1984 U.S. military shoots down 2 Iranian jets over
the Persian Gulf
1985 U.S. Navy jet forces an Egyptian commercial
airliner to land in Sicily

These people expect their satisfaction guaranteed
Anything less comfortable is not allowed.
Different voices we Americans seldom heed.
Simple moral questions won't be said aloud.
The leaders state that which everyone is to see
But their type of truth is just another useless root
Of that once verdant tree that should mean liberty.
That now is hacked and sadly broken underfoot
While snakeoil hucksters proudly ply their ware
Selling safety and security in that old new offer.
A Potemkin vision in which everything here is fair
And if the evil die young it's their fault they suffer.

When Christ called us to be willing servants of all
Of course, He meant only those on this side of the wall.

1985 U.S. Army assists in raids in coca regions of Bolivia
1986 U.S. Navy bombs Libya killing Col. Khaddafi's daughter
1987-88 U.S. Navy bombs Iran on the side of Iraq in their war

blue gulf
grey sand
black oil
green money
brown skin
red blood

1988 U.S. Navy shoots down 2 Libyan jets
1988 U.S. troops invade Panama killing over 2,000
while arresting President Noriega
1989 U.S. troops used to put down Black unrest after
hurricane in Virgin Islands, St. Croix
1989 U.S. jets provide air cover for Marcos government
against non-violent coup in Phillipines
1990 U.S. troops evacuate civilians during civil war
in Liberia
1990-91 First Gulf War against Iraq

the war was black and white
at first but then
in living color red and yellow and khaki green

brought into the living room but what was always missing
was the smell of war
my war smelled
of dying vegetation eau de agent orange
burnt gunpowder and burnt people
dark blood sweet and warm
piss shit sweat
the same smell is found in what is left of a pizza shop
in Jerusalem
now the smell of war is in Jenin and Ramallah
piss and shit and blood
mixes with the frustrated cries
of the people
Helen Caldicott holds up
a picture of a baby with his head blown off
the smell of his head seeps up through the
concrete rubble after the tanks roll on
the same smell of piss and shit and blood
rose in the hot desert
some days after soldiers were buried
the same smell at Waco when the embers died and
the smoke cleared
the same smell of
more piss and shit and blood
was found by firefighters
and police digging below the twin tower's space
the same smell more piss more shit
more blood
was found near Kabul raised with the dust
by bombs from 40,000 feet
next we'll find that same smell in some new axis of evil where
the smell of oil added to the smell of dead children
added to the putrescent odor of piss and shit and blood
of war and death
should gag us all

however as Erasmus said five hundred years ago
war is sweet
to those who know it not

1991-2001 U.S. bombs Iraq hundreds of times killing
many civilians maintaining the no-fly zone
1991 U.S. Army and Marines deployed in Los Angeles
during anti-police uprising
1992-94 U.S. Army and Navy bombing and raid
during U.S. led U.N. occupation
1993-95 U.S. jets bomb Serbs in Bosnia

I will teach you how
to perform a war
a clean operation
to remove that dangerous tissue
which can no longer be controlled
we first name it cancer
we curse it for an inhuman bastard
nothing legitimate to be found
the pathologic question
must be asked and answered
weighing whether a pound of flesh will be enough
shared definitions in hand
we sharpen our knives
chrome and steel
bright lights
remove any shadow
of doubts
patriotic anesthesia dulls the senses
common and other
to the loud cutting
ripping and
bleeding to come
once hidden viscera bloody red
broken bone white
and hypoxic blue tissue
stare out at us
unexpected collateral damage
can be dressed
with sterile white gauze
although the bloated smell
sometimes remains

we will remove our gloves and
wash our hands

1994-96 U.S. Army and Navy blockade the nation of Haiti
1995 U.S. jets bomb Serb airfields in Croatia
1996-97 U.S. Marines at Rwandan Hutu refugee camps
in Zaire
1997 U.S. troops evacuate foreigners from Liberia
1998 U.S. troops evacuate foreigners from Albania
1998 U.S. missiles attack a pharmaceutical plant in Sudan
1999 U.S. missiles attack a former CIA training camp
in Afghanistan

I think that the targeting of innocent civilians is the worst thing
about modern conflicts today. And to the extent which more and more
people seem to believe it is legitimate to target innocent civilians to reach
their larger political goals, I think that's something to be resisted at every
turn. Pres. Bill Clinton, 03-21-2000

2001 U.S forces attack Afghanistan in response to
terrorist attack by Egyptians and Saudis

I heard it on NPR
someone said we're at war
yeah that's terror
here in North America
now we get a taste of it
we get to see the other side
now our children die
now we see there are no accidents
only consequences
we gag on the dust and rubble and fumes
in New York
in Washington D.C.
in Pennsylvania
in Kabul
in Bagdhad
now we gag on the truth


2003 U.S. military in massive unprovoked attack
against Iraq leads to the death of thousands


This poem initially was my response to the events of September 11, 2001.
Published as a chapbook by D-Press 2001,
Sebastopol CA. The historical
data was gathered from several sources including a website by Zoltan Grossman,
the Library of Congress and the U.S. Navy historical websites. I tried to find
secondary sources to assure historical accuracy but this is a poem not a history book.
Errors are mine. This poem has been revised several times.
[See review by Tom Shea, “Grave Lines: Some Poems of Larry Kirschner,”  Ground Zero (July 2013).   And books and articles by William Blum.]

Answering a question

The first man I killed was small and
hiding in the tall grass.

Being a killer forever changes you.
Even if you learn to be kind and considerate and civilized
that part of you is always
hiding down inside
awaiting a chance.

A normal person does not want to kill and
will avoid it at all costs.
The military won't let you remain normal.
It doesn't matter if you think
you are smart enough
not to get caught up in their lies.
They will change you.

Don't be sucked into the biggest myth and lie
that dying for your country is somehow heroic

Really be all that you can be.

Contents of #7
Dick:   Ark. Democrat-Gazette Columnist Dana Kelly
Book:   Bacevich, et al. Short American Century
Bacevich: American Century Ended
Hedges: Suing Barack Obama
Chomsky on Warrior Caste
Parenti book, The Face of Imperialism
Nuclear Weapons Locations
Philippines and US Minotaur
Film, Amigo by Sayles
Cut US Military Spending
Cold War Continuing
From Iraq to Australia
Engelhardt, The United States of Fear
Articles Forwarded by Historians Against War

Contents of #8
Myth of US Innocence, Classified Reading List
Dick, LTE on Supporting the Troops
History of US Anti-Imperialism
Orton: US Aggression
Engelhardt, The United States of Fear
Golinger, The Empire’s Web
Chomsky, From Vietnam War to Present
Cindy Sheehan
Rachel Maddow, Presidential Power
Bacevich, Special Operations
Schwartz, War Without End


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Dick's Wars and Warming KPSQ Radio Editorials (#1-48)

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