Wednesday, September 28, 2016


Compiled by Dick Bennett for a Culture of Peace and Justice.
(#1 Jan. 12, 2013; #2, September 13, 2013)

FROM PLYMOUTH TO PACIFIC ISLANDS, FROM JAMESTOWN TO JEJU, FROM FORTS TO LILY PADS:  The Continuity of Military Forts and Bases in the Expansion of the US Empire

What’s at Stake:  Noam Chomsky opens Who Rules the World? (2006) with this generally accepted statement:  “Among states, since the end of World War II the United States has been by far the first among unequals, and remains so.”  In a little over 400 years it has warred its way through 12 million native Americans until fewer than a million survived by the twentieth century, and kidnapped, enslaved, and tortured millions of AfrIcans, and now commands the lands with over 800 military bases, the seas with 10 carrier-based strike forces, and the air with thousands of aircraft, hundreds of them now bombing seven countries.   The selections of this collection illuminate moments of the first hundreds of years when the United States of America consolidated during its westward conquest of the continent, and began its extra-continental westward and eastward movements toward global control.

Contents:  US Imperialism, Continental Expansion, Ethnic Cleansing, Genocide Newsletter
      #3, September 28, 2013
Films, Plymouth and Jamestown
Duval, Gulf Coast 18th Century
Tully, Ohio Valley Early 19th Century
Anderson, Texas 1820-75
Anderson, California 1846-73
Madley, California 1846-73
Anderson, Ethnic Cleansing of the Indians
Vine, From Continental Forts to Global Bases
Speth and Thompson, Dominion

The Pilgrims, Nov. 24, 2015
Bonus Video: Chapter 1
Bonus Video: The True Story of the First Thanksgiving
Timeline: The Pilgrims
Bonus Video: Overboard on the Mayflower
Teacher's Resources: Teacher's Guides
Further Reading: Related Books and Websites
Watch Online
The Pilgrims

“The challenges the Pilgrims faced in making new lives for themselves still resonate almost 400 years later: the tensions of faith and freedom in American society, the separation of Church and State, and cultural encounters resulting from immigration.”  [The latter is a superb euphemism for settlers in other people’s land (the film glances at fierce Powhatan resistance) that covers up the “American Experience” of their offspring eventually committing genocide against Native Americans.]   --Dick
About the Film
Download "The Pilgrims" on iTunes
Buy The Pilgrims on DVD

Death at Jamestown
PBS, “Jamestown’s Dark Winter”
“As they set sail from London to the distant shores of America in December 1606, the men and boys onboard the Susan Constant, the Godspeed, and the Discovery surely expected the best from their adventure. They’d establish a British settlement, find gold and silver, a passage to the Orient, and, perhaps, the lost colony of Roanoke. The explorers, funded by a group of London entrepreneurs called the Virginia Company, could not have anticipated the fate that actually awaited most of them: drought, hunger, illness, and death [including Algonquin attacks].”  This decimation was arrested when new settlers arrived in 1609 and a fort was built, but they too suffered death, illness, hunger.  With the help of Pocahontas, daughter of the Algonquin chief, Powhatan, Capt. John Smith negotiated a temporary peace.  Most of the new settlers also died, but in 1612 tobacco and in 1619 slaves rescued them.  That neither the British nor the Algonquins imagined the future awaiting their descendants we might expect, unless the Natives included a visionary thinker capable of understanding the long-range implications of their immediate resistance.

Penguin Random House

Look Inside | Enlarge Cover
Publisher’s Description:
A rising-star historian offers a significant new global perspective on the Revolutionary War with the story of the conflict as seen through the eyes of the outsiders of colonial society

Over the last decade, award-winning historian Kathleen DuVal has revitalized the study of early America’s marginalized voices. Now, in Independence Lost, she recounts an untold story as rich and significant as that of the Founding Fathers: the history of the Revolutionary Era as experienced by slaves, American Indians, women, and British loyalists living on Florida’s Gulf Coast.

While citizens of the thirteen rebelling colonies came to blows with the British Empire over tariffs and parliamentary representation, the situation on the rest of the continent was even more fraught. In the Gulf of Mexico, Spanish forces clashed with Britain’s strained army to carve up the Gulf Coast, as both sides competed for allegiances with the powerful Chickasaw, Choctaw, and Creek nations who inhabited the region. Meanwhile, African American slaves had little control over their own lives, but some individuals found opportunities to expand their freedoms during the war.

Independence Lost reveals that individual motives counted as much as the ideals of liberty and freedom the Founders espoused: Independence had a personal as well as national meaning, and the choices made by people living outside the colonies were of critical importance to the war’s outcome. DuVal introduces us to the Mobile slave Petit Jean, who organized militias to fight the British at sea; the Chickasaw diplomat Payamataha, who worked to keep his people out of war; New Orleans merchant Oliver Pollock and his wife, Margaret O’Brien Pollock, who risked their own wealth to organize funds and garner Spanish support for the American Revolution; the half-Scottish-Creek leader Alexander McGillivray, who fought to protect indigenous interests from European imperial encroachment; the Cajun refugee Amand Broussard, who spent a lifetime in conflict with the British; and Scottish loyalists James and Isabella Bruce, whose work on behalf of the British Empire placed them in grave danger. Their lives illuminate the fateful events that took place along the Gulf of Mexico and, in the process, changed the history of North America itself.

Adding new depth and moral complexity, Kathleen DuVal reinvigorates the story of the American Revolution. Independence Lost is a bold work that fully establishes the reputation of a historian who is already regarded as one of her generation’s best.

The book might be entitled  Independence Lost: US Continental Expansion to the Gulf Coast.  The settlers who overthrew the British empire’s restraints on their expansion, when they became the USA moved not only westward but also southward against more British there, and Spanish and French settlements and forces, and the many Native nations—Chickasaw, Creek, Seminoles, and others.  And so it goes to the Pacific.    From the Introduction:  “Ultimately, the independence of the United States was built on refusing to share the continent with empires or with sovereign Indians” (xxiv).  From the Conclusion:  “The United States would be a new kind of empire, one that rejected imperial hierarchies of reciprocal dependences and instead defined and advanced its own independence through exclusivist citizenship and military might” (344).   –Dick

Crooked Deals and Broken Treaties: How American Indians were Displaced by White Settlers in the Cuyahoga Valley by John Tully. MONTHLY REVIEW, 2015.      
Long before the smokestacks and factories of industrial Akron rose from Ohio’s Cuyahoga Valley, the region was a place of tense confrontation. Beginning in the early 19th-century, white settlers began pushing in from the east, lured by the promise of cheap (or free) land. They inevitably came into conflict with the current inhabitants, American Indians who had thrived in the valley for generations or had already been displaced by settlement along the eastern seaboard. Here, on what was once the western fringe of the United States, the story of the country’s founding and development played out in all its ignominy and drama, as American Indians lost their land, and often their lives, while white settlers expanded a nation.
Historian and novelist John Tully draws on contemporary accounts and a wealth of studies to produce this elegiac history of the Cuyahoga Valley. He pays special attention to how settlers’ notions of private property—and the impulse to own and develop the land—clashed with more collective social organizations of American Indians. He also documents the ecological cost of settlement, long before heavy industry laid waste to the region. Crooked Deals and Broken Treaties is an impassioned accounting of the cost of “progress,” and an insistent reminder of the barbarism and deceit that fueled the rise of the United States.
Praise for Crooked Deals and Broken Treaties:
Author John Tully masterfully achieves a well-researched, in-depth case study of one site of United States’ settler colonialism, in the Cuyahoga Valley region, which gave birth to the settler city of Akron, Ohio. The violence and ethnic cleansing involved in this early 19th century colonial project previewed the later ethnic cleansing of Native nations and communities from all the territory east of the Mississippi River. This work is a model for detailed local studies of United States settler-colonialism.  —Roxanne Dunbar-Ortiz, author, An Indigenous Peoples’ History of the United States
John Tully is Honorary Professor, College of Arts, Victoria University in Melbourne, Australia. He is the author of several works of history, including Silvertown: The Lost Story of a Strike that Shook London and Helped Launch the Modern Labor Movement and The Devil’s Milk: A Social History of Rubber, as well as three novels.

Middle 19th Century:  Texas
Gary Clayton Anderson. The Conquest of Texas: Ethnic Cleansing in the Promised Land, 1820-1875. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2005. 494pp.  (What we call war crimes today.  –Dick)

An American Genocide:  The United States and the California Indian Catastrophe, 1846-1873 by Benjamin Madley.  Yale UP, 2016. InsideYour Price: $38.00
·         Buy
May 24, 2016
712 pages, .

The first full account of the government-sanctioned genocide of California Indians under United States rule

Between 1846 and 1873, California’s Indian population plunged from perhaps 150,000 to 30,000. Benjamin Madley is the first historian to uncover the full extent of the slaughter, the involvement of state and federal officials, the taxpayer dollars that supported the violence, indigenous resistance, who did the killing, and why the killings ended. This deeply researched book is a comprehensive and chilling history of an American genocide.
Madley describes pre-contact California and precursors to the genocide before explaining how the Gold Rush stirred vigilante violence against California Indians. He narrates the rise of a state-sanctioned killing machine and the broad societal, judicial, and political support for genocide. Many participated: vigilantes, volunteer state militiamen, U.S. Army soldiers, U.S. congressmen, California governors, and others. The state and federal governments spent at least $1,700,000 on campaigns against California Indians. Besides evaluating government officials’ culpability, Madley considers why the slaughter constituted genocide and how other possible genocides within and beyond the Americas might be investigated using the methods presented in this groundbreaking book.
Benjamin Madley is assistant professor of history, University of California, Los Angeles, where he focuses on Native America, the United States, and genocide in world history. He lives in Los Angeles, CA.
See rev. by Richard White, “Rather a Hell Than a Home.”  The Nation (Sept. 12-19), 2016.  Madley’s An American Genocide is a careful, comprehensive demonstration of genocide by California’s elected officials and their associates, “funded and enabled by the federal government.”  Together they created a “killing machine” over several decades.  –Dick

Ethnic Cleansing and the Indian: The Crime That Should Haunt America by Gary Clayton Anderson
Volume 9 | 2015 Time, Movement, and Space: Genocide Studies and Indigenous Peoples Issue 2 | Article 14 Book Review: Ethnic Cleansing and the Indian: the Crime that Should Haunt America Mark Meuwese University of Winnipeg Abstract. This critical review examines the recent monograph by Gary C. Anderson, Ethnic Cleansing and the Indian. Although Anderson's work gives a comprehensive overview of how Native Americans were forced from their homelands by European and American settler-expansion, the author's analysis is weakened by his refusal to consider that many of the Indigenous groups may have experienced this process as genocide.

Also rev. John Mack Faragher, Pacific Historical Review
Vol. 84 No. 4, November 2015.   (pp. 538-539) 

Ethnic Cleansing and the Indian by Gary Anderson, Google Search, Inc.
Editorial Reviews. Review. "Gary Clayton Anderson has uttered the words that most American historians have, for a variety of reasons, been unwilling to use.
[PDF]Ethnic Cleansing and the Indian: the Crime that ... - Scholar
by M Meuwese - ‎2015 - ‎Related articles
This critical review examines the recent monograph by Gary C. AndersonEthnic Cleansing and the. Indian. Although Anderson's work gives a comprehensive ... › History › American History
 Rating: 3.3 - ‎12 votes
According to historian Gary Clayton Anderson, however, the United States has its own legacy of ethnic cleansing, and it involves American Indians. In Ethnic ...
by JM Faragher - ‎2015
Review: Ethnic Cleansing and the Indian: The Crime That Should Haunt America by Gary Clayton Anderson. John Mack Faragher. Pacific Historical Review Vol. › ... › The American Historical Review
by A Alvarez - ‎2015
The term “ethnic cleansing” first came into widespread usage during the violence in Bosnia-Herzegovina in the early 1990s. As the former Yugoslavia collapsed ... › ... › Journal of American History
Building on his Conquest of Texas (2005), Gary Clayton Anderson applies the “ethnic cleansing” test to the history of Indian-white relations in the United States.
Aug 14, 2016 - Again on genocide versus ethnic cleansing: Gary Clayton Anderson, 'The Native Peoples of the American West: Genocide or Ethnic Cleansing ...
Indian Country Today Media Network
Jun 13, 2014 - A new book by Gary AndersonEthnic Cleansing and the Indian, is bound to attract attention as a "pro-Indian" book. The subtitle, "The Crime ...
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Ethnic cleansing and the Indian: the crime that should haunt America, ... The two books under review, Gary Clayton Anderson's Ethnic Cleansing and the Indian ...


Base Nation:
How U.S. Military Bases Abroad Harm America and the World
                Metropolitan Books/Henry Holt (August 25, 2015)

From Italy to the Indian Ocean, from Japan to Honduras, the far-reaching story of the perils of U.S. military bases overseas -- and what these bases say about America today….

American military bases encircle the globe. More than two decades after the end of the Cold War and nearly three-quarters of a century after the last battles of World War II, the United States still stations troops at some eight hundred locations in foreign lands. These bases are usually taken for granted or overlooked entirely, a little-noticed part of the Pentagon’s vast operations. But, in an eye-opening exposé, Base Nation shows how this global base network causes an array of ills—and undermines national security in the process.

As David Vine demonstrates, the overseas bases raise geopolitical tensions and provoke widespread antipathy toward the United States. They undermine American democratic ideals, pushing the United States into partnerships with dictators and perpetuating a system of second-class citizenship in territories such as Guam. The far-flung bases strain the lives of military families, breed sexual violence, displace indigenous peoples, and destroy the environment. Their financial cost is staggering: though the Pentagon tries to underplay the numbers, Vine’s accounting proves that the true bill approaches $100 billion or more per year. And by making it easier to wage interventionist wars far from home, overseas bases have paved the way for disastrous conflicts that have cost countless lives.

For decades, the need for overseas bases has been a quasi-religious dictum of U.S. foreign policy. Recently, however, a bipartisan coalition has finally started questioning this conventional wisdom. With U.S. forces still in Afghanistan, the Middle East, and beyond, Vine shows why we must reexamine the tenets of our military strategy, the way we engage with the world, and the base nation that America has become.

For more information, see:

See Vine chap 1 on forts, then sum on bases

The U.S. occupations of Iraq and Afghanistan have created a disaster throughout the Middle East, turning millions of people into homeless refugees desperately seeking a safe haven for their families. <Full statement>
From VFP Weekly E-Newsletter 11-13-15.

Few US citizens would disagree about Iraq (some 5 million displaced), and I suspect the majority would not about Afghanistan (invading a nation to capture a man).   OMNI needs a refugee task force and IPAD could start linking displaced Native Americans to their modern counterparts as refugees.  Similarly, modern scholarship is connecting contemporary US imperialism with the US continental westward conquest by linking forts and bases (Vine,Base Nation, see his illuminating map on forts pp. 20-21 and bases pp. 32ff.).  

UA, through International Students/Michael Freeman and OMNI, has a scholarship for students seeking asylum (fleeing violence).  If you wish to contribute to the scholarship, contact Mr. Freeman or me.

David Vine in Base Nation: How U.S. Military Bases Abroad Harm America and the World (2015).   From Jamestown to Jeju Island the continuity of building “frontier forts” for US domination.    Vine discusses the history of U.S. military displacement of indigenous groups to create bases.    “During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, bases in North America assisted in the displacement of millions of Native American peoples” (72).  He exposes the several euphemisms for imperial conquest through bases (“forward operating sites”), including the “lily pads” of “self-contained outposts strategically located’ around the world.”  But the “conservative American Enterprise Institute” understands the goal of the United States has been “’to create a worldwide network of frontier forts,’ with the U.S. military ‘the ‘global cavalry’ of the twenty-first century’” (57).   --Dick
See OMNI newsletters on US Westward and Eastward Imperialism (now merged into US Imperialism:  Encircling China and Russia).

James Gustave Speth and J. Phillip Thompson III.   “Powered by Radical Roots.”  The Nation (May 9/16, 2016).   The arrogant European settlers’ “attitude of control and dominion over ‘soulless’ matter and animals, including ‘inferior’ nonwhites, is an evil embedded deeply in the culture” and “haunts and weakens our democracy.”  MLKJR recognized it and died opposing it.  Indigenous philosophies teach the intertwining of all life, such as the Iroquois Confederacy 1977 statement, “Basic Call to Consciousness: Address to the Western World.”  We must overcome “our tragic legacy of subordinating nature to humans and humans to other humans.”

Stannard, Holocaust
Churchill, Genocide
Anderson, French and Indian War
Gwynne, Fall of the Comanches
LaFeber, Economic Expansion
McCoy and Scarano, Expansion South and West
Sprague, Haiti
Gabriel, Arctic
Contents Continental Westward Expansion (and South and North) #2
Dick, Charles Mann, Decimation of Indian Population, Westward Movement
Baker’s Review of Charles Mann, 1491 (2011).
Latin America:  Dix and Fitzpatrick, Nicaragua. . .Photo/Testimonial Book (2013).
North American Indian Genocide: Google Search
Elizabeth Fenn, the Mandans
Hatch, Osceola and the Great Seminole War (2012)
Rutkow, American Canopy, History of US Forests
US Art for Empire: Art Glorifying Westward Conquest of Manifest Destiny: 
    Emanuel  Leutze
Richard White, Railroads
From the Continent to the Pacific:  Japanese-Americans Interned During WWII,
    One Consequence (see US Imperialism Pacific/E. Asia Newsletters)
Winona La Duke’s Native Struggles for Land and Life, Reviewed by Mokhiber
     and Weissman, “Somebody Else’s Land.”
Vacy Vlazna, Australian and Israeli Genocidal Parallels

(Also:  Go to US Imperialism Pacific/E. Asia Westward Movement, Encircling  China Newsletter,, #1 May 8, 2012; #2 August 22, 2012; #3 Nov. 25, 2012; #4 Jan. 12, 2013; #5 March 27, 2013; #6 July 5, 2013; #7 August 12, 2013; #8 Nov. 8, 2013; #9 Jan. 2, 2014; #10 Feb. 3, 2014; #11 Feb. 26, 2014; #12 April 21, 2014; #13, June 26, 2014).


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Dick's Wars and Warming KPSQ Radio Editorials (#1-48)

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