Monday, March 2, 2015


Compiled by Dick Bennett for a Culture of Peace.
(#1 March 1, 2012; #2 March 1, 2013).


Here is the link to all OMNI newsletters:   For a knowledge-based peace, justice, and ecology movement, enabling an informed citizenry to connect all the dots as the foundation for change.


Also see: UN Nuclear Abolition Day June 2, UN International Day against Nuclear Tests (29 August), Nuclear Free Future Month August, and US Imperialism Westward Movement Pacific/E. Asia Newsletter, Marshall Islands Nuclear Zero Suits Against Nuclear Nations, Nuclear Age Peace Foundation (supporting the suits).

Actively advocate a world free of nuclear weapons.  Is anything you are doing now more urgent?  Yes, there is one thing: actively preparing adaptations to global warming.  But only this one thing.

Nos. 1, 2, 3 at end.

Contents: Nuclear Victims and Survivors Remembrance DAY Newsletter #4, March 1, 2015
Nuclear Victims and Survivors Remembrance DAY, Google Search, March 2, 2015,
     pages 1 and 2
Hibakusha Google Search, March 2, 2015
Dick, Marshall Islands Nuclear Zero Lawsuits

Nuclear Victims and Survivors Remembrance DAY, Google Search March 2, 2015, pages 1-2

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Remembrance Day
by Ron Tanner

March 1 in the Republic of the Marshall Islands is a national holiday. It used to be called Nuclear Victims’ Day, then Nuclear Survivors’ Day, and now Remembrance Day. The change reflects the nation’s determination to do more than voice lament and complaint for all they have suffered as the result of the U.S. government’s nuclear testing. But no one who knows the full story of nuclear testing in the Marshall Islands could blame the Marshallese for complaint or lament. Most Americans of a certain age have heard of the Bikini nuclear bomb test. But few Americans know, much less understand, the extent of nuclear testing that took place in this island nation between 1946 and 1958. During that time the U.S. Joint Task Force exploded a total of 67 nuclear bombs in the Marshall Islands. All of these were above-ground, under water, or ground-level tests. They created a stunning amount of fallout.
When the U.S. Navy introduced the Marshallese to the U.S. government’s intention to use the Marshall Islands as a nuclear testing grounds, the U.S. commander (filmed for PR purposes) asserted that the Marshallese were making sacrifices “for the benefit of mankind.” What did the Marshallese know of nuclear bombs? What did most people in the world know of this weapon? The Marshallese wanted to be good citizens. The Americans seemed to know what they were doing. Certainly they put on a good show--they had big boats; their leaders who wore impressive white uniforms with gleaming gold buttons; and apparently they had wealth beyond measure.
The first evacuees (from Bikini) were assured that they would soon return home. It seemed the tests would be only a temporary inconvenience. Even so, asking the Marshallese to move was asking a lot. To Americans, land is mostly a commodity to buy and sell. We are famous for moving our homes more frequently than any other people in the world. The Marshallese, by contrast, have been bound to their fragile atolls for three millennia, each clan, each family, associated with particular islands and particular parcels on those islands. The land is so sacred thatto plant and to bury are the same word:kallib. The graves of Marshallese ancestors nourish the crops of their descendants.
What happened once the tests began, in 1946, is a long and sordid story. The U.S. government moved the Marshallese around willy nilly, without asking permission of the landowners whose islands they used. The refugees were encamped here, then there, sometimes on islands or atolls that were not large enough to feed them. The psychological effects of these upheavals have yet to be gauged fully, for there are four populations of four atolls -- Enewetok, Rongelap, Utrik, and Bikini -- who have never been able to return to home.
The physical effects of testing are still playing out. Some charge that the U.S. government used the Marshallese as guinea pigs because it made no effort to warn, much less evacuate, people who were in the path of the fallout. The most notorious incident occurred in 1954. Despite weather reports that warned of a shift in the wind, which would jeopardize several populated atolls, the U.S. Joint Task Force went ahead with its March 1 hydrogen bomb test -- a blast whose yield was 1,000 times greater than Hiroshima’s. In fact, this would be the U.S.’s most powerful test ever.
Unlike Hiroshima’s blast, which was well above the city, the Bravo blast was in-ground. It created a 20-mile-high upheaval of coral, water, animal, and plantlife, which then drifted in a huge cloud of raining fallout. It may have been anywhere from 1,000 to 10,000 times the fallout of Hiroshima.
The fallout drifted east over hundreds of square miles of populated islands. Inhabitants of the nearest islands, in the Rongelap atoll, experienced a snow of ash that, at first, was a wondrous sight. They’d heard of snow. But it quickly turned nightmarish, for the ash caused radiation burns. They would call this “the day of two suns.” No one had told them this was coming. They had no idea that everything they were drinking and eating was now contaminated. One inhabitant of nearby Likiep, who was eight at the time, recalls how a couple of days after the blast, he awoke to find the floor of his hut strewn with dead geckos that had fallen from the thatch roof where they had been exposed to the fallout. Canaries in a coal mine.
Two days after the blast, the Navy decided it should evacuate those who got caught down-wind because American servicemen at a weather station at nearby Rongerik sent a panicked report of fallout. The Navy moved some islanders, but not all. Apparently the commander in charge felt besieged by the growing number of refugees. He didn’t finish the job, leaving nearly 400 Marshallese on Aliuk. There was some attempt at follow-up. The U.S. sent doctors out to treat the victims. They assured the Marshallese that the worst was over. People would heal. The land would recover. Everything would return to normal. But then, a couple years later, it became frighteningly clear that things would not return to normal. Children exposed at an early age to the fallout were not growing. But the doctors were stymied. In 1963 they discovered, finally, that the victims’ thyroids were malfunctioning, depressing the pituitary gland, which regulates growth.
This was the beginning of decades of radiation-related ailments. And still the nuclear bombing persisted through 1958, despite the Marshallese pleas that it stop. Not until the 1970s did the Marshallese begin to seek compensation in the courts. Significantly, this was the decade the nation sued for independence, which came finally in 1986. As part of the Compact that guaranteed the nation’s sovereignty, the U.S. agreed to award the Marshallese $150 million in compensation for damages associated with nuclear testing. Interest from this fund was earmarked for disbursement to the victims and their families, but the funds were quickly eroded by the 1987 stock market crash and other factors. What is more, studies showed that the damage was far greater than the initial estimates, enumerated both in physical damage and in damages generated by the 1) loss of land use, 2) the cost of rehabilitating contaminated land, and 3) consequential damages resulting from such loss, repatriation, and rehabilitation.
The Bikinians would accept a settlement of $360 million to reclaim Bikini atoll. But estimates for total reclamation reach as high as a billion. That’s a lot of money. But the Bikinians didn’t do the damage. And billion-plus is about what the U.S. government is spending every week in Iraq. Reportedly, 40% of the original Marshallese population that suffered the effects of radiation have died without receiving any compensation. They continue to sue through an organization called the Nuclear Claims Tribunal.
As many have observed, the U.S. testing of nuclear bombs was the product of profound arrogance, ignorance, and wishful thinking. The U.S. government hardly treated its own servicemen and women any better than the Marshallese. Untold numbers of servicemen and -women subjected themselves to exposure as their commanders told them there was nothing to fear. Just 10 hours after the first Bikini tests, Navy men were boarding the irradiated target ships in the Bikini lagoon and swimming in water that, only hours before, had been a seething cauldron of radiation. Years later these men would die of leukemia, thyroid cancer, and odd diseases that no doctor could fathom.
No single population on earth has had more exposure to and experience with the tragic effects of nuclear bombs than the Marshallese, a fact hinted at in the preamble to their constitution: “This society has survived, and has withstood the test of time, the impact of other cultures, the devastation of war, and the high price paid for the purposes of international peace and security.” (Emphasis added.) As a result, the Japanese have a great affinity for this nation. The Marshallese themselves have become international advocates of peace. Which brings us to Rembrance Day. On this day, they remember those who have suffered and those who continue to suffer, but they assert, too, that this is a proud nation that has much to celebrate and much to contribute to the world. One of those contributions is the story of this country’s remarkable survival.
At a recent Remembrance Day memorial service, the U.S. Ambassador expressed “regret” and “concern” for all that has transpired as a result of the U.S. nuclear testing. He asserted that the friendship between the U.S. and the RMI remains unwavering and that the U.S. is giving a lot of money to help the Marshallese. A flier distributed by the quiet protestors outside the meeting hall disagreed with this assessment: “Justice for Survivors, equal to the Cost of the One (1) Week Iraq War,” the flier announced. In Marshallese: “Kajimwe na Suvivor ro, jona wot eo im Amedka ej jolok Nan Iraq ilo juon week.
A number of other officials spoke at the ceremony, most of them in Marshallese. One Marshallese senator, who spoke in English, did not soft-peddle his views. At the time of the testing, he said, the Marshall Islands was “an occupied nation.” The move of testing from Nevada to the Marshall Islands made clear that “our land, our people, our nation were not seen as important as the people and property of the U.S. mainland.” Trusteeship in 1947, he observed, “was simply a legal mechanism to continue the testing that had already begun the year earlier.” As “trustees,” the Marshallese had no legal rights in the U.S. courts. Despite the eventual independence of the Marshall Islands, he concluded, “we are still seeking recognition of our rights in U.S. courts fifty-four years later.”
The assembled, elderly survivors stood and sang a song of their own composition. It was so sad, so haunting, it could be easily understood even by those who don't know Marshallese. If you do some research online, you may come across a collection of paintings housed by U.S. Naval Historical Center at the Navy Yard in Washington, D.C. The Navy collected paintings and illustrations from its servicemen who witnessed the first tests in 1946. It’s a bizarre assemblage of images, some striking, some lovely--all of them unsettling—and it underscores how naïve participants were at the beginning of an era that seemed so promising but went so thoroughly wrong.

1.    Remembrance Day: Nuclear Testing in the Marshalls  [This is the preceding entry.]
March 1 in the Republic of the Marshall Islands is a national holiday. It used to be called Nuclear Victims' Day, then Nuclear Survivors' Day, and now ...
March 1 is Nuclear Victims Remembrance Day in the Marshall Islands, which is a national holiday there. This day commemorates the victims and survivors of ...
Mar 1, 2012 - ... of the Bravo Shot and the 2012 Nuclear Survivors Remembrance Day, ... to commemorate and honor the victims and survivors of the nuclear ...
Mar 1, 2014 - Nuclear Victims Remembrance Day. by Yasuyoshi Komizo ... Even for survivors, lives were permanently altered. Under harsh, painful ...
It was three days before the ... a nuclear survivor who had seven miscarriages related to radiation. ... nuclear victims and survivors from these atolls. The word.
Nuclear Remembrance Day is commemorated around the world to reflect and honorvictims and survivors. Nuclear Remembrance Day 2015 will be ...
Mar 1, 2014 - (now NUCLEAR VICTIMS AND SURVIVORS REMEMBRANCE ... Marshall Islands Nuclear Victims Day, Castle Bravo, March 1, Google Search ...
Life Magazine
On August 6, two years to the day and the minute after the first atomic bomb ..... At least 3000 of these victims were prisoners of war, including Korean, Chinese, ...
University of Michigan Library
by JA Schwartz - ‎2012 - ‎Cited by 3 - ‎Related articles
Five years later, on March 1, 2009, Nuclear Victims' and Survivors' RemembranceDay, fifteen Rongelapese—all women—stood in front of memorial wreaths ...
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Page 2, March 2, 2015 Google search
Barbara Rose Johnston, ‎Holly M Barker - 2008 - ‎History
5528 Marshallese march on Nuclear Victims/Survivors Day, March 1, 2004, Marshall Islands. Nuclear Remembrance Day is commemorated around the world ... › International
ABC News
Aug 6, 2010 - Survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Attacks Call for ... VIDEO: Hiroshima victims share stories of survival 65 years after the bombing. ... During that day in the Japanese city of Hiroshima, survival rested solely on ...
Mar 1, 2014 - Nuclear Remembrance Day (Marshall Islands), formally known asNuclear Victims' Day and Nuclear Survivors' Day is a national holiday in the ...
Some victims were vaporized instantly, many survivors were horribly disfigured, and death from radiation was uncertain—it might not claim its victims for days, ... › News
It's a day to remember the victims and survivors of nuclear testing, as well as of the legacy impacts of the production of nuclear weapons, including nuclear waste ...
Voice of America
Oct 30, 2009 - Sixty years ago, on August 5, 1945, in Washington and August 6, in Japan, the United States dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima. It was the ...
Holly Barker - 2012 - ‎Social Science
Essay from Marshall Islands Middle School in recognition of Nuclear Victim's Remembrance Day. Lifton, Robert Jay. 1991. Death in Life: Survivors of Hiroshima.
Nothing in the day's dawning indicated that this day would be any different from its ... But this day would be different, very different. .... Bombing victim: her skin is
–nuclear weapon testing SITES ... –nuclear weapon production siteS ... IS NOW KNOWN AS “NUCLEAR VICTIMS AND SURVIVORS REMEMBRANCE DAY” IN ...
Aug 1, 2011 - Uploaded by British Pathé
The first half of the video shows details of victims of the Horishima bomb, such as a ... this is going to happen ...‎
Search for Nuclear Victims Day Look Up Quick Results Now!
Searches related to Nuclear Victims and Survivors day

HIBAKUSHA: ATOMIC BOMB SURVIVORS, Google Search, March 2, 2015.
Dictionary  Thesaurus  Translate  More...
[hee-buh-koo-shuh; Japanese hee-bah-koo-shah]
Spell Syllables
Examples Word Origin
noun, plural hibakushas, hibakusha.
a survivor of either of the atomic bomb attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945.
Origin Expand
< Japanese, equivalent to hibaku bombed ( hi- suffer + baku- burst open, explode < Middle Chinese, equivalent to Chinese bèi bào) + -sha person < Middle Chinese, equivalent to Chinese chě Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2015.
Examples from the web for hibakusha Expand
Some of the artists whose work will appear in the exhibition are hibakusha, or survivors of the nuclear blasts.
British Dictionary definitions for hibakusha Expand
noun (pl) -sha, -shas
a survivor of either of the atomic-bomb attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945
Word Origin
C20: from Japanese, from hibaku exposed + -sha -person
Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition
© William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012
Cite This Source
The surviving victims of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki are called hibakusha (被爆者), a Japanese word that literally translates as ... Bomb survivors are referred to in Japanese as hibakusha, which translates literally as “bomb-affected-people”. We highlight the gifts we can learn and ...
United Nations
HIBAKUSHA - ATOMIC BOMB SURVIVORS ... education by serving as a resource point for hibakusha related materials. ... Links to Testimonies of Hibakusha.
Voice of Hibakusha - Testimony of the Survivors of the Hiroshima Bombing. › ... › Effects of Nuclear War
These "Voice of Hibakusha" eyewitness accounts of the bombing of Hiroshima are from the program HIROSHIMA WITNESS produced by the Hiroshima Peace ...
a documentary film about hibakusha, the survivors of the atomic bomb in Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
University of California, Los Angeles
Oct 10, 2007 - In 1979, thirty-four years after the atomic blast at Hiroshima, Akihiro Takahashi became director of the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum and ...
Hibakusha definition, a survivor of either of the atomic bomb attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945. See more.
Asahi Shimbun
"Memories of Hiroshima and Nagasaki--Messages from Hibakusha (atomic bomb survivors)" is a website that makes available to the public first-hand accounts ...
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Marshall Islands Nuclear Zero Lawsuits
On April 24th, 2014 the Marshall Islands filed landmark cases—called the Nuclear Zero Lawsuits--in the International Court of Justice and U.S. Federal District Court.  The Marshall Islands made the case that the nine nuclear-armed nations have failed to comply with their obligations, under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation treaty and customary international law, to pursue negotiations for the worldwide elimination of nuclear weapons.   For the seven billion of us who live on this planet, they act to end the nuclear weapons threat hanging over all humanity.
Unfortunately, a Federal District Court granted the U.S. government's Motion to Dismiss.  But the Marshall Islands plan to appeal.  Foreign Minister Tony de Brum stated:  “Nuclear weapons are not our friend, nor the friend of the U.S. or any other country. Rather, these weapons are the enemy of all humankind. That is why we will stand up for what we believe in, and we will be appealing the Court’s dismissal of the lawsuit to the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals, the next step in the American judicial process.”
To support the Suits, contact Rick Wayman ( ), Nuclear  Age Peace Foundation (, which has organized a supporting Coalition.   The OMNI Center for Peace, Justice, and Ecology is a member of the Coalition: contact Lauren Hawkins (,  Dick Bennett (, or Gladys Tiffany ( ).  Also the government of the Marshall Islands has a Consul in Springdale, the Honorable Carmen Chong Gum.  –Dick Bennett

Contents #1
Google Search, Nuclear Free and Independent Pacific Day

Contents #2  March 1, 2013
Remembrance Day
Ambassador Campbell, Nuclear Victims’ Remembrance Day 2012

Contents of Nuclear Free Pacific and Marshall Islands Nuclear Victims Day Newsletter,  March 1, 2014
Nuclear Free Independent Pacific Day ('Bikini' Day) (Google search), which marks the anniversary of the US 'Bravo' nuclear bomb detonation at Bikini Atoll, March 1, 1954
Marshall Islands Nuclear Victims Day, Castle Bravo, March 1,  Google Search
   Foregrounded:  National Security Archive Report
Illumination Day Google Search
    Foregrounded:  New Book, Nine Degrees North


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