Tuesday, December 17, 2013


OMNI NUCLEAR WEAPONS  NUCLEAR ABOLITION NEWSLETTER # 17, December 17, 2013.    OMNI Building a Culture of PEACE, Compiled by Dick Bennett. (See #1, June 14, 2007; #2, January 8, 2008; #3 May 16, 2008; #4 June 10; 2009,  #5 July 23, 2009, ; #6 Sept. 21, 2009; #7 August 29, 2010; #8 April 11, 2011; #9 August 4, 2011; #10 Feb. 27, 2012; #11 April 4, 2012; #12 June 27, 2012; #13 July 27, 2012; #14 August 11, 2012; #15, Dec. 4, 2012; #16 July 20, 2013)    Imagine a world free of nuclear weapons, be committed to that goal, join OMNI to strive with others for that goal.

Contact your Arkansas Representatives
Steve Womack      202-225-4301
Tim Griffin              202-225-2506
Tom Cotton            202-225-3772
Rick Crawford        202-225-4076

For seven years, these seventeen newsletters, and related newsletters, the OMNI Center for Peace, Justice, and Ecology has been Arkansas’ only sustained source of information about nuclear weapons dangers and harms and the Abolition Movement.  OMNI deserves your support.   Call 935-4422. 

Nuclear Abolition Day June 2. 
International Day against Nuclear Tests August 29.



Here is the link to all OMNI newsletters:

http://www.omnicenter.org/newsletter-archive/   The dozens of newsletters provide OMNI and the peace and justice movement with subject-focused information and criticism.     Here is the link to the Index:  http://www.omnicenter.org/omni-newsletter-general-index/


Nos. 12 and 13 at end.

Contents of #14  August 14, 2012
Video Underground:  Hydrogen Bomb Testing in Marshall Islands
Chomsky, US/SU Nuclear Confrontation at Cuba
From the Nuclear Abolitionist
Annual Desert Protest
Resisters Receive New Felony Charges

Contents of #15
Protesters Arrested, Sign Petition
Plutonium Cores Project Stopped
India’s Tests
Mayors vs. Nukes
Uranium Mines
The Nuclear Resister (Sept. 3, 2012)
Nevada Desert Experience
Nuclear Age Peace Foundation

Contents #16
Disarmament Video Contest
The Nuclear Resister (March 17, 2013)
WAND, End the MOX Program
Sign Declaration Against Nuclear Deterrence
Eiger, Actions Arguments Against Nuclear Weapons
Chomsky, Nuclear War Threats
Chomsky’s New Book, Nuclear War and Environmental Catastrophe
Green, Consequences of Nuclear Attack

Contents #17
Damascus, Arkansas Nuclear Explosion
Nuclear War: What It Might Be Like
Schillinger, Novel Envisions Manhattan After Nuclear Blast
Opposition to Nuclear Weapons, Abolition Movement
Pope Francis for Abolition
Joseph Rotblat, Opponent of Nuclear Weapons
Past Nuclear Close Calls
Thirteen Days, Year 2000 Film About Cuban Missile Crisis
Contact President Obama

Command and Control: Nuclear Weapons, the Damascus Accident, and the Illusion of Safety
Book by Eric Schlosser.  Penguin, 2013.
·  The New Yorker “Excellent... hair-raising... Command and Control is how nonfiction should be written.” (Louis Menand) Famed investigative journalist Eric Schlosser digs deep to uncover secrets about the management of America’s nuclear arsenal. ... Google Books
  PublishedSeptember 17, 2013
·                               Read an Excerpt
·                               Praise
·                               Books by Eric Schlosser
Summary of Command and Control

The New Yorker
“Excellent... hair-raising... Command and Control is how nonfiction should be written.” (Louis Menand)

A ground-breaking account of accidents, near-misses, extraordinary heroism, and technological breakthroughs, Command and Control explores the dilemma that has existed since the dawn of the nuclear age:  how do you deploy weapons of mass destruction without being destroyed by them?  That question has never been resolved--and Schlosser reveals how the combination of human fallibility and technological complexity still poses a grave risk to mankind.

Written with the vibrancy of a first-rate thriller, Command and Controlinter weaves the minute-by-minute story of an accident at a nuclear missile silo in rural Arkansas with a historical narrative that spans more than fifty years.  It depicts the urgent effort by American scientists, policymakers, and military officers to ensure that nuclear weapons can’t be stolen, sabotaged, used without permission, or detonated inadvertently. Schlosser also looks at the Cold War from a new perspective, offering history from the ground up, telling the stories of bomber pilots, missile commanders, maintenance crews, and other ordinary servicemen who risked their lives to avert a nuclear holocaust.  At the heart of the book lies the struggle, amid the rolling hills and small farms of Damascus, Arkansas, to prevent the explosion of a ballistic missile carrying the most powerful nuclear warhead ever built by the United States

Drawing on recently declassified documents and interviews with men who designed and routinely handled nuclear weapons, Command and Control takes readers into a terrifying but fascinating world that, until now, has been largely hidden from view.  Through the details of a single accident, Schlosser illustrates how an unlikely event can become unavoidable, how small risks can have terrible consequences, and how the most brilliant minds in the nation can only provide us with an illusion of control.  Audacious, gripping, and unforgettable, Command and Control is a tour de force of investigative journalism, an eye-opening look at the dangers of America’s nuclear age.

Time magazine
 “A devastatingly lucid and detailed new history of nuclear weapons in the U.S.... fascinating.” (Lev Grossman)

Financial Times
“So incontrovertibly right and so damnably readable... a work with the multilayered density of an ambitiously conceived novel… Schlosser has done what journalism does at its best."
Los Angeles Times
“Deeply reported, deeply frightening… a techno-thriller of the first order.”


RICK MOODY, “The Albertine Notes”
Rev. Liesl Schillinger, “Boomtown,” New York Times Book Review (June 3, 2007). 
. . . . But in “The Albertine Notes,” the third and longest novella in “Right Livelihoods,” he starts with a shocker that could come from a future season of “24”: a suitcase bomb has laid waste to Lower Manhattan.
Tompkins Square Park was a junkies’ wasteland in the ’80s; in the ’90s, it was revived. But in “The Albertine Notes,” it’s gone — along with the city skyline. New Yorkers wear gas masks on the Kosciusko Bridge to protect themselves from noxious fumes. “People just turned their backs on Manhattan,” Moody writes. “They forgot about that island, which was the center of nothing, except maybe the center of society ladies with radiation burns crowding the trauma units at the remaining hospitals. Manhattan was just landfill now.”
On “24,” such calamities are met with heroic pronouncements and redoubled resolve, but Moody’s tale takes place in a hero-free zone. New Yorkers react to the attack with passivity and denial, applying their energies (such as they are) to avoiding thinking about the catastrophe. Both the small screen of “24” and the printed page of Moody’s fiction confound expectations by showing that the most potent fallout is emotional, not atomic. What holds the audience hostage is the rubbernecking impulse: curiosity about how these characters will fare in the aftermath of the blow.
As always, the battlefield that interests Moody is interior. Barely possessing the fight to make a fist, his disheartened survivors sedate themselves with a drug called Albertine (a just-for-the-sake-of-it nod to Proust). For 25 bucks a pop, Albertine sinks its users into a consoling stupor, allowing them to relive visions of life before the blast — a first kiss, a concert, even a moment of sexual betrayal — that had been searing, perhaps, but not radioactive.
At the story’s outset, Albertine abuse has reached epidemic proportions. As in “The Plague,” the novella takes the form of a record kept by a man who observes the epidemic at first hand. Kevin Lee, a gifted, upper-middle-class Chinese-American touchily introduces himself by saying that he’s “third generation, which doesn’t mean my dad worked in a delicatessen to get me into M.I.T. It means my father was an I.T. venture capitalist and my mother was a microbiologist.” Kevin didn’t go to M.I.T.; he went to (and dropped out of) Fordham. And as he attempts to retrace the origins of Albertine for the reader, his hunt for the woman who gave it her name veers into a surreal maze of conspiracies linked to identity, memory and time.
Like the narrator of a segment of “This American Life,” Kevin builds empathy with sauntering stealth. The Albertine fiends aren’t losers, he argues; they’re people very much like you. “When you’re used to living a comfortable middle-class life, when you’re used to going to the organic farmers’ market on the weekend, maybe a couple of dinners out at that new Indian place, you’re bound to become very uncomfortable when 50 square blocks of your city suddenly look like a NASA photo of Mars. You’re bound to look for some relief when you’re camped in a school gymnasium pouring condensed milk over government-issued cornflakes.” It’s Moody’s genius to know that the horror of a nuclear blast is hardly conceivable — but condensed milk? Now there’s something to cry over.
Moody wrote “The Albertine Notes” as an experiment in genre fiction at the behest of Dave Eggers and Michael Chabon, who edited the edition of Eggers’s magazine that became the anthology “McSweeney’s Mammoth Treasury of Thrilling Tales.” The fact that these three writers would not only support one another but set one another tasks is a heartening sign of artistic altruism. Their cooperative impulse is a stroke of luck for readers.


For a world free of nuclear weapons



2013-09-28 L’Osservatore Romano
Published below is  the intervention given on 26 September  in New York by the Archbishop Secretary for Relations with States, during the High-Level Meeting of the United Nations  General Assembly on Nuclear Disarmament
Mr. President,
 The General Assembly resolution calling for today’s High-Level meeting on Nuclear Disarmament expressed the common conviction that the complete elimination of nuclear weapons is essential to remove the danger of nuclear war, a goal that must have our highest priority.  The Holy See, which has long called for the banishment of these weapons of mass destruction, joins in this concerted effort to give vigorous expression to the cry of humanity to be freed from the specter of nuclear warfare.
Under the terms of the Non-Proliferation Treaty, states are enjoined to make “good faith” efforts to negotiate the elimination of nuclear weapons.  Can we say there is “good faith” when modernization programs of the nuclear weapons states continue despite their affirmations of eventual nuclear disarmament?  Concern over the proliferation of nuclear weapons into other countries ring hollow as long as the nuclear weapons states hold on to their nuclear weapons.  If today’s special meeting is to have any historic significance, it must result in a meaningful commitment by the nuclear weapons states to divest themselves of their nuclear weapons.
Five years ago, the Secretary-General offered a Five-Point Plan for Nuclear Disarmament.  It is past time for this plan to be given the serious attention it deserves.  The centre-piece is the negotiation of a Nuclear Weapons Convention or a framework of instruments leading directly to a global ban on nuclear weapons.  This is a clear-cut goal, fully understandable and supportable by all those who truly want the world to move beyond the dark doctrines of mutual assured destruction.
 It is now imperative for us to address in a systematic and coherent manner the legal, political and technical requisites for a world free from nuclear arms. For this reason, we should begin as soon as possible preparatory work on the Convention or a  framework agreement for a phased and verifiable elimination of nuclear arms.
 The chief obstacle to starting this work is continued adherence to the doctrine of nuclear deterrence.  With the end of the Cold War, the time for the acceptance of this doctrine is long passed.  The Holy See does not countenance the continuation of nuclear deterrence, since it is evident it is driving the development of ever newer nuclear arms, thus preventing genuine nuclear disarmament. 
 For many years, the world has been told that a number of steps will lead eventually to nuclear disarmament.  Such argumentation is belied by the extraordinary nature of today’s meeting, which surely would not have been called if the steps were working.  They are not.  It is the military doctrine of nuclear deterrence, politically supported by the nuclear weapons states, that must be addressed in order to break the chain of dependence on deterrence.  Starting work on a global approach to providing security without relying on nuclear deterrence is urgent.
 We cannot justify the continuation of a permanent nuclear deterrence policy, given the loss of human, financial and material resources in time of scarcity of funds for health, education and social services around the world and in the face of current threats to human security, such as poverty, climate change, terrorism and transnational crimes.  All this should make us consider the ethical dimension and the moral legitimacy of the production, processing, development, accumulation, use and threat of use of nuclear arms. We must emphasize anew that military doctrines based on nuclear arms, as instruments of security and defence of an élite group, in a show of power and supremacy, retard and jeopardize the process of nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation.
It is time to counter the logic of fear with the ethic of responsibility, fostering a climate of trust and sincere dialogue, capable of promoting a culture of peace, founded on the primacy of law and the common good, through a coherent and responsible cooperation between all members of the international community.
 Thank you, Mr. President.



Sir Joseph Rotblat

Nuclear physicist and Nobel peace prizewinner who quit the Manhattan Project and whose Pugwash initiative helped thaw the cold war
·                                 The Guardian, Friday 2 September 2005 04.25 EDT
Sir Joseph Rotblat
The nuclear scientist Sir Joseph Rotblat. Photograph: Guardian/Martin Argles
Sir Joseph Rotblat, who has died aged 96, was a nuclear physicist and a tireless worker for peace. When he and his creation, the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs were jointly awarded the 1995 Nobel peace prize, some newspapers identified him only as a "little known" physicist. But scientists in many disciplines, and officialdom in many countries, knew him well.
Born in Warsaw, Poland, Rotblat remained there until the age of 30, during which time he had been working in nuclear physics. What saved his life was that he had arranged to spend a year as Oliver Lodge fellow at Liverpool University with the Nobel prize for physics recipient Professor James Chadwick - the man who proved the existence of neutrons. This meant that Rotblat, after a short return visit, left Poland two days before Hitler invaded his country, otherwise one of the most extraordinary scientific careers of the 20th century would have been lost.
In the year 1939 came the discovery of nuclear fission in uranium and Rotblat himself subsequently worked on fission, briefly in Warsaw and later in Liverpool, where certain basic experiments were carried out into the feasibility of an atomic bomb. Inevitably, with the entry of the United States into the second world war in 1941, and the subsequent move to develop the A-bomb, he soon found himself at the centre of the Manhattan Project at Los Alamos, New Mexico.
Like a minority of the scientists involved, he was concerned then about the morality of working on a weapon of mass destruction, but convinced himself that the apparent danger of a German bomb justified it. However, unlike those other scientists, as soon as this danger had clearly disappeared he left the project and returned to Liverpool University to resume his post as a lecturer, and then senior lecturer, in the physics department and director of research into nuclear physics.
In 1950 he became professor of physics at London University's St Bartholomew's Hospital Medical College. He remained in the post until 1976 - then becoming emeritus professor. During those years his professional career was devoted to the application of nuclear physics to medicine.
But Rotblat's real life's work was summed up by Bertrand Russell in his autobiography: "He can have few rivals in the courage and integrity and complete self-abnegation with which he has given up his own career (in which, however, he still remains eminent) to devote himself to combating the nuclear peril as well as other, allied evils."
Rotblat first took the lead in setting up, in 1946, the British Atomic Scientists Association (Basa), following meetings between Liverpool and Oxford physicists who had worked on the Manhattan Project or its British precursor, code-named Tube Alloys.
Although Basa was much smaller than its counterpart, the Federation of American Scientists, it was able to stimulate public debate through its journal, through public statements and its atom train travelling exhibition. It had adopted a non-political stance and its list of vice-presidents - all fellows of the Royal Society - included many of Britain's most eminent scientists as well as government advisers, and covering almost the whole political spectrum, from critics of British defence policy like Patrick Blackett to Winston Churchill's personal scientific adviser, Lord Cherwell.
Unfortunately, it turned out to be insufficiently non-political for some of the vice-presidents, following a public statement in 1957 about the danger of strontium-90 in fallout from nuclear weapon tests. Basa was wound down and finally dissolved in 1959. Many of Britain's leading physicists, including Harrie Massey, Nevill Mott, Rudolph Peierls and GP Thomson, had taken active roles in it. But Rotblat was its driving force and conscience.
By this time Rotblat had become active in other directions. He had helped Russell and took the chair at the launch of the famous Einstein-Russell Manifesto in 1955, signed by Albert Einstein two days before his death, and by nine other world-famous scientists, mostly Nobel prizewinners. At the time of his death, Rotblat was the last surviving signatory. He was a founder member of the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, launched in 1958, and was briefly on its executive committee.
Rotblat's main contribution, nevertheless, was still to come. It was through the Pugwash Conference on Science and World Affairs, financed by a Canadian-American industrialist, Cyrus Eaton, which was first held in 1957 at Pugwash, a small fishing village in Nova Scotia.
Conferences followed approximately once a year, organised by Rotblat and his friend Professor Patricia Lindop of St Bartholomew's. The lists of up to 100 participants, from as many as 40 countries, but mostly from Great Britain, the US and the Soviet Union were a Who's Who of international science; the list of locations is a map of the world.
Most significant was the understanding that participants attended as individuals, not as representatives of governments, though observers from such organisations as the UN or the UN's educational scientific and cultural organisation Unesco were welcome. Scientists from both sides of the iron curtain could talk freely and informally but could, of course, report back to their governments. A Unesco/Pugwash symposium: Scientists, The Arms Race And Disarmament (1982), mentions several instances where Pugwash discussions had clearly contributed to subsequent international agreements.
Rotblat was secretary-general of Pugwash from 1957 until 1973, chairman of British Pugwash from 1978 to 1988 and from 1988 to 1997 president of Pugwash worldwide. Its annals, many edited by him with various collaborators, have provided continuing and wide-ranging analyses into current problems of disarmament and world security.
While working at Los Alamos, Rotblat had been shocked to hear General Leslie Groves, director of the Manhattan Project, remark quite casually that the real purpose, of course, was to subdue the Soviet Union. When he decided to leave the project, a determined but highly incompetent attempt had been made to "fit him up" as a Russian spy.
It is a tribute to his universally recognised integrity, and to his skill in treading delicately though forcefully (he was very much aware of the cost of respectability as well as of its advantages) that among his many honours from east - including several from his native Poland - and west was the CBE, awarded in 1965. No measure of his real contribution, the honour at least signalled that his help to the British establishment by then outweighed his nuisance value.
In 1992, jointly with Hans Bethe (obituary, March 18 2005), he was awarded the much coveted Einstein peace prize, and in 1995, unusually late in career for a distinguished scientist, he was elected to the Royal Society. But perhaps the accolade that meant most to him was the sometime Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev's statement that Pugwash papers and conferences had helped to guide the foreign policy that had led to the thaw in the cold war.
Rotblat wrote or edited more than two dozen books and scores of papers, culminating in the 1995 Nobel lecture - a powerful and moving exposition of the continuing danger to the world of the existence of nuclear weapons. In it he appealed to the nuclear powers to abandon cold-war thinking, to his fellow scientists to remember their responsibility to humanity, quoting the last passage of the Russell-Einstein Manifesto: "We appeal, as human beings to human beings. Remember your humanity and forget the rest. If you can do so, the way lies open for a new paradise; if you cannot there lies before you the risk of universal death."
Rotblat continued to work into his 90s with apparently undiminished energy, lecturing in dozens of cities in Britain and abroad - including Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
Since his Nobel prize, he was aware that he was now "somebody" - his own expression - and spoke out on wider issues. In 1996, he appealed personally to President Weizman of Israel to show clemency to Mordechai Vanunu, the former technician who had "leaked" to the Sunday Times about Israel's secret stockpile of nuclear weapons and was then still in prison - in solitary confinement - after 10 years.
Following the disclosures about cloning experiments, he argued that an international ethics committee must be set up to monitor developments. He said: "I feel, however unpleasant it may be for scientists, that science may have to be controlled. We have got to tackle it because I think the whole future of mankind is in jeopardy."
Anthony Tucker adds: In accounts of Joseph Rotblat's important work for the wartime Tube Alloys Project (the British nuclear weapons programme) at Liverpool University, of his time at Los Alamos, his reasons for leaving the project and turning to the much harder battle for peace and disarmament, Rotblat consciously excluded all references to his life before the war. He called such references "extraneous personal elements", almost as if his life had begun when he left Poland in 1939.
Yet his life and attitudes had, by that time, been profoundly affected by isolation, family disruption and social deprivation. After the turn of the century, his father built up and ran a nationwide and prosperous horse-drawn transport business based in Warsaw. The family owned land and bred horses out in the countryside and, with two brothers and a sister, Joseph's formative years were initially in a context of culture, comfort and social esteem.
When he was five, things changed dramatically for the worse. The first world war turned Europe into a charnel house triggering, among other things, a wave of antisemitism that swept away his family's business and position. Rotblat grew up as an increasingly deprived, often hungry and sometimes physically abused child in the breadlines of a starving nation. Experiencing first-hand the near-insane intolerance and injustice generated as a political condition of war, these years forged Rotblat's unswerving ideals of world peace and of the use of science for the benefit of man and the planet.
In spite of great difficulties, the family remained together in Warsaw and, by 1918, Joseph was reading everything he could find, in English as well as Polish and Russian. His parents, recognising his outstanding intelligence, wanted him to become a rabbi. But Joseph, with a natural gift for mathematics and a flair for experiment, was determined to become a scientist.
During the early interwar years, he scratched a living as a teenage domestic electrician in Warsaw and, through sheer brilliance - for he was without formal education -won a very rare free place in the physics department of the University of Warsaw. At the same time he was granted a position as junior demonstrator, which carried a pittance rather than a salary. In spite of - or perhaps because of his experience of poverty - he never looked back academically, becoming a research fellow at the university in 1933 and assistant director of the atomic physics institute at the Free University of Warsaw from 1937 to September 1939.
During this period he married but, when he left Poland for Liverpool University on the eve of the outbreak of the second world war, his wife was ill.
They planned that she should follow him to England as soon as she was able. In the event she was killed, or died in the appalling conditions of the Warsaw ghetto during the first months of the Nazi occupation, a fact known to British intelligence in 1941 but not passed on to Rotblat until 1945.
Indeed, when he left Los Alamos in 1944, Rotblat had planned to return to Poland immediately after the war in the hope of finding his wife. Instead, in recognition of the important role Rotblat had played in nuclear weapons research, the British government agreed to try to find any other survivors of his family.
Rotblat thought that his parents would be dead. But his mother, sister and two brothers, who had escaped from the Warsaw ghetto to go into hiding or join the anti-Nazi guerrillas in Russia, were found to be alive. By negotiation and by devious routes, all were brought to England in the postwar years, cementing Rotblat's loyalty and, through their experiences, reinforcing his unceasing and single-minded pursuit of an ideal world in which the primary goal is peace.
In his 90th year Rotblat might be said to have finally entered the public consciousness by appearing on BBC Radio 4's Desert Island Discs.
In 1998, he surprised some of his friends by accepting a knighthood at the level (Knight Commander) usually associated with establishment figures such as lords lieutenant or permanent secretaries. But all will have appreciated the words of the citation: "for services to international understanding".
· Anthony Tucker died in 1998. His contribution has been revised and updated.
· Joseph Rotblat, nuclear physicist and peace campaigner, born November 4 1908; died August 31 2005

1.                             Joseph Rotblat - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Sir Joseph Rotblat KCMG CBE FRS (4 November 1908 – 31 August 2005), born JózefRotblat, was a Polish-born British-naturalised physicist. His work on ...

2.                             Joseph Rotblat

Joseph Rotblat was born in Warsaw, Poland's capital city, in 1908. He remembers the good days before World War 1: his father ran a successful transporting ...

3.                             Joseph Rotblat Quotes - BrainyQuote

www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/j/joseph_rotblat.htmlEnjoy the best Joseph Rotblat Quotes at BrainyQuote. Quotations by Joseph Rotblat, Polish Physicist, Born November 4, 1908. Share with your friends.

4.                             Nuclear Files: Library: Biographies: Joseph Rotblat

Joseph Rotblat, born in Warsaw in 1908, obtained his M.A. from the Free University of Poland in 1932 and a doctorate in Physics from the University of Warsaw ...

5.                             Joseph Rotblat - Jewish Virtual Library

Joseph Rotblat, born in Warsaw in 1908, obtained his M.A. from the Free University of Poland in 1932 and a doctorate in Physics from the University of Warsaw ...

6.                             The Vega Science Trust - Joseph Rotblat Interview 1 - Tape 6

vega.org.uk › ... › Video Interviews with Scientists
Nov 10, 2006
A science video interview - Born in Warsaw in 1908, physicist Joseph Rotblat has had an incredible career ...

7.                             Peacejam | Sir Joseph Rotblat

Joseph Rotblat was born on November 4, 1908, in Warsaw, Poland. He was from a Jewish family. He had two brothers and one sister. At that time, Poland was ...

Reader Supported News | 27 September 13 PM
It's Live on the HomePage Now: 
Reader Supported News

Carl Gibson | Washingtonians Fight for GMO Labeling 
Washington will decide on GMO labeling this year. (photo: Friends Eat)
Carl Gibson, Reader Supported News 
Gibson writes: "This November, voters in Washington State will decide whether or not people have the right to know if there are genetically-modified organisms (GMOs) in the food they buy when they vote on Initiative 522." 
A Republican Ransom Note 
The New York Times 
Excerpt: "The list would be laughable if the threat were not so serious. A failure to raise the debt ceiling would cause a default on government debt." 
Louis Menand | Nukes of Hazard
Louis Menand, The New Yorker .  
| 27 September 13 PM
Menand writes: "During the Cold War, there were a few occasions, such as the Cuban missile crisis, in 1962, when one side or the other was close to a decision that was likely to start a nuclear war." 


1.                             Thirteen Days - Rotten Tomatoes

 Rating: 83% - ‎117 reviews
Review: Thirteen Days offers a compelling look at the Cuban Missile Crisis and ...Thirteen Days is a good movie about a profound moment in world history.

2.                             Thirteen Days | Film | The Guardian

www.theguardian.com › Culture  Film
Details: 2000, USA, Cert 12, 145 mins, Drama, Dir: Roger Donaldson. With: Bruce Greenwood, Kevin Costner, Steven Culp. Summary: For two weeks during ...

3.                             'Thirteen Days' Doesn't Add Up - History Matters

The film Thirteen Days, a Hollywood account of the Cuban Missile Crisis, purports to take audiences “behind the scenes” at the White House during the tense ...

4.                             Film/Thirteen Days - Television Tropes & Idioms

A description of tropes appearing in Thirteen Days.

5.                             Thirteen Days Movie Review & Film Summary (2001) | Roger Ebert   www.rogerebert.com/reviews/thirteen-days-2001    Rating: 3/4 - ‎Review by Roger Ebert   Jan 12, 2001 - The 1962 Cuban missile crisis was the closest we've come to a nuclear world war. Nikita Khrushchev installed Soviet missiles in Cuba...

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